American Journal of Water Resources
ISSN (Print): 2333-4797 ISSN (Online): 2333-4819 Website: Editor-in-chief: Apply for this position
Open Access
Journal Browser
American Journal of Water Resources. 2020, 8(4), 173-181
DOI: 10.12691/ajwr-8-4-3
Open AccessArticle

Effects of Liquid Waste Management Approaches in High End Hotels on Wastewater Quality in Sekenani, Masai Mara Game Reserve, Kenya

Jilani C. Chiro1, , Romulus Abila1 and Aggrey Thuo1

1School of Natural Resources and Animal Sciences Maasai Mara University, P.O. BOX 861 - 20500, Narok, Kenya

Pub. Date: August 19, 2020

Cite this paper:
Jilani C. Chiro, Romulus Abila and Aggrey Thuo. Effects of Liquid Waste Management Approaches in High End Hotels on Wastewater Quality in Sekenani, Masai Mara Game Reserve, Kenya. American Journal of Water Resources. 2020; 8(4):173-181. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-8-4-3


The world famous Masai Mara Game Reserve is experiencing an unprecedented expansion in tourist facilities to accommodate increasing traffic in this water scarce environment. A major direct environmental impact of this expansion is wastewater released to the fragile environment from these facilities. The objective of this study is to examine the effects of wastewater management methods on quality of wastewater in 4 purposively selected high-end tourist facilities located in Sekenani within Masai Mara Game Reserve by assessing seasonal quality of effluent discharged. Water samples were collected randomly from the effluent of the facility during both wet and dry seasons and were subjected to analysis for: pH, Temperature, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Total Phosphates, Nitrates, Electrical Conductivity (E.C), Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Turbidity, Total Suspended Solids (TSS) and Coliforms. Data were analysed using SPSS software and tested using analysis of Variance at 0.05 confidence level. Quality of wastewater was generally poor and dissolved oxygen, TSS, and coliforms showed variation between the wet and dry seasons. Single septic tank and septic tank and soak away treatment approaches produce water with the lowest quality based on Water Quality Index (WQI). This poses a great threat to not only the health of the communities relying on the recipient rivers as sources of water but also the Masai Mara ecosystem. To mitigate against discharge of poor quality wastewater to the environment, we recommend incorporation of modern innovative environmentally sustainable wastewater management technologies e.g. constructed wetlands to water treatment systems and robust enforcement of national environmental regulations. Further studies should include monitoring changes in macroinvertebrate species diversity and abundance along the recipient streams to provide a more holistic and integrated assessment of the ecological impact of the wastewater on the receiving lotic environments.

Sekenani Masai Mara Game Reserve wastewater wastewater management physico - chemical parameters

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Bartzke GS, Ogutu, JO, Mukhopadhyay S, Mtui D, Dublin HT, Piepho H-P (2018). Rainfall trends and variation in the Maasai Mara ecosystem and their implications for animal population and biodiversity dynamics. PLoS ONE 13(9).
[2]  Okech R. (2010). Wildlife community conflicts in Wildlife areas in Kenya. African Journal of Conflict Resolution Vol: (10).
[3]  Omonge P, Herrnegger M, Gathuru G, Furst J, Olang L.(2020). Impact of Development and Management options on Water resources of the upper Mara River Basin of Kenya. Water and Environment journal. 1747-6585.
[4]  Ouya S., Gervais M., Dioum I., T. Ousman Eds (2019). E- Infrastructure and e-Services for Developing Countries. 10th EAI International Conference, AFRICOMM 2018. Dakar, Senegal. 29-30th November, 2019 Proceedings.
[5]  Richards, N. and Syallow D. (2019). Water Resources User Associations in the MaraBasin, Kenya: Pitfalls and opportunities for community based natural resources management. Front environmental Sciences. 6: 138.
[6]  Hoffman, C. M. Melesse, A. M. and McClain, M. E. (2011). Geospatial mapping and analysis of water availability-demand-use within Mara river basin. In: Melesse A.M. (Ed.) Nile River Basin: Hydrology, Climate and Water Use. Dordrecht, New York: Springer, pp.359-382.
[7]  Minaya, V.GM. (2010). Land use influence on the benthic macroinvertebrate communities of streams in Nyangores and Amala tributaries of Mara River, Kenya. Unpublished Masters Dissertation”, UNESCO IHE, Institute of Water Education.
[8]  Kilonzo, N.F., Masese, F.O., Van-Griensven, A., Bauwens, W., Obando, J.,and Lens, P.N.L. (2014). Spatial-temporal variability in water quality and macro-invertebrate assemblages in the upper Mara river basin, Kenya. Physics and chemistry of the earth, 67-69.
[9]  Corcoran, E., C. Nellemann, E. Baker, R. Bos, D. Osborn, H. Savelli (eds), (2010). Sick Water? The Central Role of Waste - Water Management in Sustainable Development. A Rapid Response Assessment. United Nations Environment Programme, UN-HABITAT, GRID-Arendal.\. Birkeland Trykkeri AS, Norway.
[10]  Drechsel, P., Qadir, M., and Wichelns, D. (2015a) (eds). Wastewater: Economic Asset in an Urbanizing World. Springer.
[11]  United Nations (UN) -Water (2015). Clean Water and Sanitation, Annual Report. UN-Water Technical Advisory Unit, 7 bis Avenue de la paix case postale 2300CH-1211 Geneve 2 Switzerland.
[12]  Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MEA) (2005). Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Synthesis. Island Press, Washington, DC, p. 52-53.
[13]  Mango, L.M., Malesse A.M., McClain, M.E., Grann, D., Setegn, S.G. (2011). Land Use and Climate Change Impacts On The Hydrology Of The Upper Mara River Basin, Kenya: Results of a Modelling Study to Support Better Resources Management. Hydrology and earth system sciences, 15(2245-2258).
[14]  American Public Health Association (APHA), American Water Works Association, Water Pollution Control Federation (1989). Standard methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. Washington D.C; American Public Health Association.
[15]  Yuan, Y., Hall, K. and Oldham, C. (2001). A preliminary model for predicting heavy metal contaminant loading from an urban catchment. Science of the total Environment. 266: 299-307.
[16]  Kothari C. R. (2004). Research Methodology. Methods and Techniques. New Age International (P) Limited. New Delhi, India
[17]  Yasser A. E. Mahmoud A. El-Kawy Z. Sadam H. Al-Maory (2015). Assessment of Physicochemical Characteristics of Water and Sediments in Rossetta Branch, Egypt. Journal of Water Resources and Protection. 7 1075-1086.
[18]  WHO (1999). Health-Based Monitoring Of Recreational Waters: The Feasibility of a New Approach (The ‘Annapolis protocol). Outcome of an Expert Consultation, Annapolis, USA Cosponsored by USEPA, Geneva.
[19]  Monney, I., Odai, S. N., Buamah, R., Awuah, E., and Nyenje, P.M.(2013). Environmental impacts of wastewater from urban slums: Case study - old Fadama, Accra. International Journal of development and sustainability. Vol. 2 (2): 711-728.
[20]  Ngugi N. H. (2014). Evaluation of impacts of Water Sanitation and Hygiene to the Environment in the Upper Mara Basin Using WEAP model. (Un-published Masters Desertation). Jomo Kenyatta University of Science and Technology, Narobi, Kenya.
[21]  Atwebembeire, J., Andama, M., Yatuha, J., Lejju, J.B., Rugunda, G.K. and Bazira, J. (2019). The Physico-Chemical Quality of Effluents of Selected Sewage Treatment Plants Draining into River Rwizi, Mbarara Municipality, Uganda. Journal of Water Resource and Protection, 11 20-36
[22]  Chebor J., Ezekiel K. K., Lizzy A. M. (2017). Effects of Seasonal Variation on Performance of Conventional Wastewater Treatment System. Journal of applied & Environmental Microbiology. Vol.5. No. 1. 1-7.
[23]  IETC-UNEP, 2002. Environmentally Sound Technologies For Wastewater and Storm Water Management.
[24]  Kenya Bureau of Standards (KEBS). (2010). A standard for Standards. Development of Kenya standard Specifications.Nairobi, Kenya.
[25]  Baharvand S. Mohammad R. Mansouri D. (2019). Impact assessment of treating wastewater on the physiochemical variables of environment: A Case of Kermanshah Wastewater Treatment Plant in Iran.” Environmental system research. 8: 18.
[26]  Amotayo O, A.E., Eboreime, P.I., Aina, A.T. and Simeon, O.M. (2017). Changes in The Physicochemical and Microbial Quality Of Wastewater From a Wastewater Treatment Plant. Life Journal of Science. Vol. 19. No (2).
[27]  Kannan J. and Karthika V. (2016). Seasonal Variation in Physico-chemical and Microbiological characteristics of Sewerage water from Sewerage treatment plants. International Research Journal of Environmental Science. Vol 3:791-199.
[28]  USEPA (2000). Aquatic Life Criteria for Dissolved Oxygen - (Saltwater) Cape Cod to Cape Hatteras. Fact Sheet Available online at: teria/ aqlife/ dissolved/dofacts.cfm Date accessed: 15 May 2020.
[29]  Miruka A. C. (2010). The Efficiency of Nairobi’s Kariobangi wastewater treatment plant. (Un published Masters Dissertation). University of Nairobi, Kenya.
[30]  Echiegu E. A., Ogochukwu R. E., Ugwu S. N., Ugwuishiwu B. (2016). Evaluation of Effluent from the University of Nigeria, Nsukka Wastewater Treatment Plant for Irrigation Purpose. American Journal of Environmental Sciences. 12 (2): 122.130
[31]  Zare MR, Poureshgh Y, Fabelizade A, Shahnary A, Toolabi A, Rezaei M. (2013). Annual and Seasonal Variation of Turbidity, Total dissolved solids, Nitrates and Nitrites in the Parsabad Water Treatment plant, Iran.” International Journal of Environmental health and Engineering. 2: 37.
[32]  Amoo, A. O., Adeleye, A. O., Ijanu, E. M., Omokhudu, G. I. and Okoli, C. S. (2017). Assessment of the Efficiency of WUPA Waste-water Treatment Plant in Federal Capital Territory Abuja, Nigeria. International Journal of Applied Research and Technology. 6(9): 3- 9.
[33]  Stendahl, K. (1990). Handbook on Water Treatment, Kemira Kemi AB, Helsingborg, Sweden.
[34]  Suleiman, A.A.; Attalla, E.; Sherif, M.A.S.(2016). Water Pollution: Source and Treatment. American Journal of Environmental Engineering. 6, 88-98.
[35]  Aniyikiaye T.E. Oluseyi T. Odiyo J. O. Edokpayi J.N. (2019). Physico-Chemical Analysis of Wastewater From Selected Paint Industries In Lagos Nigeria. International journal of Research and public health, 16, 1235.
[36]  Musyoki, A. M., Mbaruk, A. S., Mbithi, J.N., and Maingi, J.M. (2013). Diurnal and Seasonal Variations Of Pathogenic Bacteria in Dandora Sewage Treatment Plant, Nairobi Kenya. Journal of Research in Environmental Science and Technology (ISSN: 2315-5698) (2): 36-41.
[37]  Mairi J. P., Lyimo TJ and Njau K. N. (2012). Performance of Sub-Surface Flow Constructed Wetlands For Domestic Wastewater Treatment. Tanzania Journal of Science Vol. 38(2).