American Journal of Water Resources
ISSN (Print): 2333-4797 ISSN (Online): 2333-4819 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/ajwr Editor-in-chief: Apply for this position
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
American Journal of Water Resources. 2019, 7(2), 76-88
DOI: 10.12691/ajwr-7-2-5
Open AccessArticle

Groundwater Physicochemical Characteristics and Water Quality Index Determination from Selected Water Wells in Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria

OO Falowo1, , V Oluwasegunfunmi1, Y Akindureni1, W Olabisi1 and A Aliu1

1Department of Civil Engineering Technology, Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria

Pub. Date: July 23, 2019

Cite this paper:
OO Falowo, V Oluwasegunfunmi, Y Akindureni, W Olabisi and A Aliu. Groundwater Physicochemical Characteristics and Water Quality Index Determination from Selected Water Wells in Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria. American Journal of Water Resources. 2019; 7(2):76-88. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-7-2-5

Abstract

The natural quality of groundwater is controlled by aquifer hydrology, geochemistry, and the geology. The principal objective of the study was to estimate and characterize the water quality parameters of groundwater using World Health Organisation (WHO) for drinking purpose. In view of objectives of the study, groundwater quality assessment was carried out in selected 67 water wells in Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria. The analyzed parameters are electrical conductivity, pH, oxidation potential (Eh), acidity, total alkalinity, total hardness, temperature, total dissolved solids (TDS), turbidity, calcium (Ca2+), magnesium (Mg2+), Sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), chloride (Cl-), bi-carbonate (HCO3-), sulphate (SO42-), and nitrate (NO3-). The temperature of the groundwater varies from 25.9 – 30.8°C with a mean of 27.9°C. All the water samples are colourless, odourless, and tasteless, with clear appearance. The recorded pH varies from 5.2 – 7.0 and characterized by an acidic condition. The EC of water samples is in the range of 53 - 874 μS/cm (avg. of 189.8μS/cm). The water type is a recharged water, with value of TDS ranging from 40mg/l to 424 mg/l, and an average of 96.7 mg/l, indicative of fresh water. The cations and anions satisfy the WHO standard for drinking purpose with about 95% compliance. The sequence of the abundance of the major ions is in the following order: HCO3-> Cl-> SO42-> NO3- for anions, and Ca2+> K+> Na+> Mg2+ for cations .The calculated values of WQI vary from 22% to 60%. The study area is widely (90% areal coverage) characterized by “Good water” in the range of 26 – 50%, with hardness varying from soft to very hard water. The “Excellent water” is only associated with Sample S-34 in the northwestern part of the study area, while “Bad water” fall (S-21, S-28, S-57, and S-65) within a small portion of biotite granite and migmatite geologic units.

Keywords:
Akure metropolis water quality indices groundwater ionic balance error total hardness electrical conductivity

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

References:

[1]  Shitta, K.A. (2007). Lithostratigraphy of Nigeria-An Overview. Proceedings, Thirty-Second Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering Stanford University, Stanford, California, January 22-24, SGP-TR-183.
 
[2]  Hamill, L. & Bell F. U. (1986). Groundwater Resources Development. Britain Library Cataloguing in Publication Data London. pp. 151-158.
 
[3]  Paramaguru, P., Anandhan, P., Chidambaram, S., Ganesh, N., Nepolian, M., Devary, N., Vesudevan, U., Rakesh R.G., Pradeep K. (2016). Appraisal of Groundwater Quality in the Cuddalore District of TN, India, International research journal of earth sciences, Vol. 4(6), 23-30.
 
[4]  Fetter, C.N. (1990). Applied Hydrogeology, 2nd Edition, CBS Publisher & Distributor, 592pp.
 
[5]  Ojo, J.S., Olorunfemi, M.O., Aduwo, I.A., Bayode, S., Akintorinwa, O.J., Omosuyi, G.O., Akinluyi, F.O. (2014). Assessment of surface and groundwater quality of the Akure metropolis, Southwestern Nigeria. Journal of Environment and Earth Science, ISSN 2225-0948, Vol. 4, No. 23, 19pp.
 
[6]  Saeedi, M., Abessi, O., Sharifi, F., Meraji, H. (2009). Development of groundwater quality index. Environ Monit Assess, 10pp.
 
[7]  Brown, R. M., McClelland, N. I., Deininger, R. A., & Tozer, R. G. (1970). A water quality index: Do we dare? Water & Sewage Works, 117, 339-343.
 
[8]  Horton, R. K. (1965). An index number system for rating water quality. Journal–Water Pollution Control Federation, 37, 300-305.
 
[9]  Dalkey, N. C. D. (1968). An objective water quality index, The Rand Corporation Harkins. Journal - Water Pollution Control Federation, 46, 588-591.
 
[10]  Liebman, H. (1969). Atlas of water quality methods and practical conditions. Munich: R. Oldenburg. Melloul, A. J., & Collin, M. (1998). A proposed index for aquifer water-quality assessment: The case of Israel’s Sharon region. Journal of Environmental Management, 54(2), 131-142.
 
[11]  Prati, L., Pavanello, R., & Pesarin, F. (1971). Assessment of surface water quality by a single index of pollution. Water Resources, 5, 741-751.
 
[12]  Harkins, R. D. (1974). An objective water quality index. Journal–Water Pollution Control Federation, 46, 588-591.
 
[13]  Walski, T. M., & Parker, F. L. (1974). Consumers water quality index. Journal of the Environmental Engineering Division, 100, 259-611.
 
[14]  Inhaber, M. (1975). An approach to a water quality index for Canada. Water Resources, 9, 821-833.
 
[15]  Shaefer, D. J., & Janardan, K. G. (1977). Communicating environmental information to the public a new water quality index. The Journal of Environmental Education, 8, 18-26.
 
[16]  Couillard, D., & Lefebvre, Y. (1985). Analysis of water quality indices. Journal of Environmental Management, 21, 161-179.
 
[17]  House, M. A., & Ellis, J. B. (1987). The development of water quality indices for operational management. Journal of the Water Science and Technology, 19(9), 145-154.
 
[18]  Soltan, M. E. (1999). Evaluation of groundwater quality in Dakhla Oasis (Egyptian Western Desert). EnvironmentalMonitoring and Assessment, 57(2), 157-168.
 
[19]  S’tambuk-Giljanovic, N. (1999). Water quality evaluation by index in Dalmatia. Water Resources, 33(16), 2440-3423.
 
[20]  Aniya, F.B and Shoeneick, K. (1992). “Hydrogeological Investigation of the Aquifer of Bauchi Area”, Journal of Mining and Geology, 28(1), 45-53.
 
[21]  Bayode, S.; Ojo, J.S., & Olorunfemi, M.O. (2006). “Geoelectric Characterization of Aquifer Types in the Basement Complex Terrain of Pats of Osun State, Nigeria”, Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, 12(3), 377-385.
 
[22]  Falowo, O.O., Akindureni, Y., Ojo, O. (2017). Irrigation and Drinking Water Quality Index Determination for Groundwater Quality Evaluation in Akoko Northwest and Northeast Areas of Ondo State, Southwestern Nigeria. American Journal of Water Science and Engineering. Vol. 3, No. 5, pp. 50-60.
 
[23]  Domenico, P.A., and Schwartz, F.W. (1990). “Physical and Chemical Hydrogeology”. John Wiley & Sons, New York, 824pp.
 
[24]  Kakati, S.S., Sarma, H.P. (2007). “Water quality index of drinking water of Lakhimpur District”. Indian J. Environ. Prot: 27(5): 425-428.
 
[25]  World Health Organization (2008). Guildelines for Drinking Water Quality, Fourth Edition, ISBN 978-92-4-154815-1.
 
[26]  Rao, G. S., & Nageswararao, G. (2013). Assessment of groundwater quality using water quality index. Arch. Environ. Sci., 7: 1-5.
 
[27]  Rao, N.S. (2017). Hydrogeology - Problems with Solutions. PHI Learning Private Limited, 265pp.
 
[28]  Adams, S., Titus, R. and Xu, Y. (2004). Groundwater recharge assessment of the basement aquifers of Central Namaqualand. WRC Report No. 1093/1/04. Water Research Commission, Pretoria, ISSB 1-77005-214-3.
 
[29]  Afolabi O.O., Olutomilola, O.O., Ishaki J.D. (2018). Assessment of Groundwater System Characteristics in Ilorin Metropolis Southwestern Nigeria. American Journal of Water Science and Engineering, Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 1-8.
 
[30]  Davis, S.N. and Dewiest, R.J.M. (1967). Hydrogeology, John Wiley and Sons, pp. 463.
 
[31]  Obase, K.O.; Olorunfemi, M.O. and Akintorinwa, O.J. (2009). “Geophysical and Hydro-Chemical Investigation of the Area Around a Waste Dump Site in Ile-Ife, Southwestern Nigeria”, Global Journal of Geological Sciences, 7(1), 47-54.