American Journal of Water Resources
ISSN (Print): 2333-4797 ISSN (Online): 2333-4819 Website: Editor-in-chief: Apply for this position
Open Access
Journal Browser
American Journal of Water Resources. 2019, 7(1), 11-15
DOI: 10.12691/ajwr-7-1-2
Open AccessArticle

Application of National Sanitation Foundation and Weighted Arithmetic Water Quality Indices for the Assessment of Kaani and Kpean Rivers in Nigeria

Kalagbor I.A.1, , Johnny V. I.2 and Ogbolokot I. E.2

1Research & Development Centre, Kenule Beeson Saro-Wiwa Polytechnic P.M.B. 20 Bori Rivers State

2Department of Science Laboratory Technology, School of Applied Sciences, Kenule Beeson Saro-Wiwa Polytechnic P.M.B. 20 Bori Rivers State

Pub. Date: January 27, 2019

Cite this paper:
Kalagbor I.A., Johnny V. I. and Ogbolokot I. E.. Application of National Sanitation Foundation and Weighted Arithmetic Water Quality Indices for the Assessment of Kaani and Kpean Rivers in Nigeria. American Journal of Water Resources. 2019; 7(1):11-15. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-7-1-2


Rivers present a continuous renewable physical resource for domestic and agricultural purposes. Kaani and Kpean rivers in Bori town in Rivers state, Nigeria are the common sources of water to the people. The water quality assessment of these rivers is carried out using fifteen physicochemical parameters. These parameters were measured for three consecutive months of July, August and September 2017 at three sampling points for each river. These months are the months of the rainy season. The samples were analysed using the standardized method of the American Public Health Association (APHA). The concentrations of all the analysed parameters were compared to World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for drinking water. National Sanitation Foundation Water Quality Index (NSF WQI) and Weighted Arithmetic Water Quality Index (WA WQI) were used for assessment. The NSF WQI values of 59.77 and 63.45 were obtained for Kaani and Kpean respectively. The NSF WQI was able to give a good evaluation of the gradual change in the water quality of these two rivers as they flowed through the communities from Kaani to Kpean. The results obtained using the WA WQI gave values of 1.68 and 6.04 for Kaani and Kpean respectively indicating that these water bodies have excellent water quality rating and both methods find useful application in the assessment of Kaani and Kpean and rivers. This study shows that in the months of the rainy season, these two rivers have good water quality and are fit for use.

assessment communities Kaani Kpean Water quality rating WQI

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Ayobahan S.U., Ezenwa I.M., Orogun E.E., Uriri J.E. and Wemimo I.J, “Assessment of Anthropogenic Activities on Water Quality of Benin River”. Journal of Applied Sciences Environmental Management, 18(4), 629-636. 2014
[2]  Food and Agricultural Organisation, “Coping with Water Scarcity”, 2007 World Water Day, 22nd March, 2007. Available at 2007
[3]  Ademola F.A, “Base Line Heavy Metals Concentration in river sediment within Okitipopo South east belt of the Nigeria bituminous sand field”. Journal of chemical society of Nigeria, 33(2), 29-34. 2008.
[4]  United Nations Environment Programme, “Water Quality for Ecosystem and Human Health”. Published by the United Nations Environment Programme Global Environment Monitoring System (GEMS)/Water Programme, 132. 2006
[5]  Agbabiake, T. O. and Oeyiola, G. P, “Microbial and physicochemical assessment of Foma River, Itanmo, Ilorin, Nigeria an important source of domestic water in Ilorin metropolis”. Intl J. plant, animal and environment sciences, 2(1), 209-216. 2012.
[6]  Goher, M.E., Hassan, A.M., Abdel-Moniem, I.A., Fahny, A.H. and El-Sayed, S.M. “Evaluation of Surface Water Quality and Heavy Metal Indices of Ismaila Canal, Nile River, Egypt”. Egyptian J. Aquatic Research, 40, 225-233. 2014.
[7]  Poonam, T., Tanushree, B. and. Sukalyan, C. “Water Quality Indices –Important Tools for Water Quality Assessment: A Review”. Intl J. Adv Chem, 1, 15-28. 2013.
[8]  Emoyan, O.O., Akporhonor, E.E. and Akpoborie, I.A. “Environmental Risk Assessment of River Ijana, Ekpan, Delta State Nigeria”, Chemical Speciation and Bioavailability, 20(1), 23-32. 2008.
[9]  Chinedu, S.N., Obinna, C.N., Adetayo, Y.O. and Eze, V.N., “Assessment of Water Quality in Cannanland, Ota, Southwest Nigeria”, Agric. and Biol. J. North America. 2(4). 577-583. 2011.
[10]  Cosmas A.A. and Samuel O.O. “Comparative Assessment of the Physico-chemical and Microbial Trends in Njaba River, Niger Delta Basin, South eastern Nigeria”. J. Water Resour and Protect, 3, 686-693. 2011.
[11]  Salawu, K., Owolarafe, T.A., Barau, M.M., Lawal, T.A., Abubakar, M.A., Fadilu, M. and Nwachukwu, F.C. “Determination of Selected Heavy Metals in Seasonal River in Mariu Town, Zamfara State, Nigeria”. J. Environ and Earth Science, 4, 11-14. 2014.
[12]  Nwoko, C.I.A., Ukiwe, L.N., Egereonu, U.U. and Ukachukwu, S.N. “Assessment of Seasonal Physico-chemical Parameters of Oguta Lake, Nigeria”. J. Adv in Chem, 11(7), 3759-3764. 2015.
[13]  Kalagbor, I. A. and Tubonemi, T. A “Comparative Assessment of the Physicochemical, Microbial property and the levels of some Heavy Metals in Ekerekana Creek in Rivers State”. Intl J. App and Nat Sciences, 7(4), 9-18. 2018
[14]  Ubalua, O.A. and Ezeronye, O.U. “Nutrients and Selected Physico-Chemical Analysis in the ABA Rivers Surface Waters Abia State, Nigeria”. Environment and Ecology, 23(1), 141-144. 2005.
[15]  Igbinosa, E.O. and Oko, A.I. “Impact of Discharge Wastewater Effluents on the Physiscochemical Qualities of a Receiving Watershed in a Typical Rural Community”. Intl J. Environ Sci & Technol, 6(2), 175-182. 2009.
[16]  Alao, O., Arojojoye, O., Ogunlaja, O. and Famuyiwa, A. “Impact of Assessment of Brewery Effluent on Water Quality in Majawe, Ibadan, Southwestern Nigeria”, Researcher, 2(5), 21-28. 2010.
[17]  Chinda, A. C., Braide, S. A. and Obunwo, C.C., “Water Quality of Streams receiving Municipal Waste Water in Port Harcourt Niger Delta, Nigeria”. Waste Water – Evaluation and Management. InTech, Croatia. 2011.
[18]  Obunwo, C.C., Chinda, A.C. and Braide, S.A. “Assessment of the Physico-chemical Characteristics of Minichida Stream, Port-Harcourt, Nigeria”. J. Chem Soc Nigeria, 37, 132-136. 2012.
[19]  Jaji, M.O., Bamgbose, O. Odukoya, O.O. and Arowolo, T.A, “Water Quality Assessment of Ogun River, Southwest Nigeria”, Environ. Monitoring Assess. 133(3), 447-482. 2007.
[20]  America Public Health Association (APHA) “Standard methods for the examination of water and waste water 20th edition”. American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association and Water Environment Federation. Washington DC, USA. 1998.
[21]  Brown, R. M., McClelland, N. I., Deininger, R.A. and Tozer, R.G. “Water quality index – do we dare”? Water Sewage Work, 117(10), 339-343. 1970
[22]  Kumar, D. and Alappat, B. “NSF – Water Quality Index: Does it Represent the Experts’ Opinion?” Practice Periodical of Hazardous Toxic and Radioactive Waste Management, 13(1), 75-79. 2009.
[23]  Chauhan, A. and Singh, S. “Evaluation of Ganga water for drinking purpose by water quality index at Rishikesh, Uttarakhand, India”. Report Opinion, 2(9), 53-61. 2010.
[24]  Balan, I.N., Shivakumar, M. and Kumar, P.D.M., “An assessment of ground water quality using water quality index in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India”. Chronicles Young Scientist, 3(2), 146-150. 2012.
[25]  Chowdhury, R.M., Muntasir, S.Y. and Hossain, M.M. “Water quality index of water bodies along Faridpur-Barisal road in Bangladesh”. Global Engineers & Technologists Review, 2(3), 1-8. 2012.
[26]  Shweta, T., Bhavtosh, S., Prashant, S. and Rajendra, D. “Water Quality Assessment in Terms of Water Quality Index”. American Journal of Water Resources. 1(3), 34-38. 2013.
[27]  World Health Organization, “Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality”, 4th Ed. NLM Classification, WA 675, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 307-433. 2011.
[28]  Nyodee, G. T. “Determination of Water Quality Index for Bangha Stream in Bangha Community, Rivers State, Nigeria”. Science and Industrial Technology Education Journal, 3(2), 182-189. 2016.
[29]  Khawakara, M.A., Majid, S.N. and Hama, N.Y., “Determination of Water Quality Index (WQI) for Qalyasan Stream in Sulaimani City, Kuradistan Region of Iraq”, Intl J. Plant, Animal and Environ. Sc. 2(4), 148-157. 2012.