American Journal of Water Resources
ISSN (Print): 2333-4797 ISSN (Online): 2333-4819 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/ajwr Editor-in-chief: Apply for this position
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
American Journal of Water Resources. 2019, 7(1), 1-10
DOI: 10.12691/ajwr-7-1-1
Open AccessArticle

Assessment of Physicochemical and Heavy Metal Properties of Groundwater in Edéa (Cameroon)

NZEKET Aline Beatrice1, MOYO Karen Brell2, Amina ABOUBAKAR1, YOUDOM YOUTHA Armelle Stéphanie1, MOUSSIMA YAKA Diane Armelle1, ZING ZING Bertrand1, SULEM YONG Nina Nindum3, MAMA Anselme Crépin2 and MFOPOU MEWOUO Yvette Clarisse1,

1Soil, Plant, Water and Fertilizer Analytical Laboratory, Institute of Agricultural Research for Development, Yaoundé, Cameroon

2Department of Oceanography, Institute of Fisheries and Aquatics Sciences, University of Douala, Cameroon

3Fingerling Production Unit, Institute of Agricultural Research for Development, Yaoundé Cameroon

Pub. Date: January 19, 2019

Cite this paper:
NZEKET Aline Beatrice, MOYO Karen Brell, Amina ABOUBAKAR, YOUDOM YOUTHA Armelle Stéphanie, MOUSSIMA YAKA Diane Armelle, ZING ZING Bertrand, SULEM YONG Nina Nindum, MAMA Anselme Crépin and MFOPOU MEWOUO Yvette Clarisse. Assessment of Physicochemical and Heavy Metal Properties of Groundwater in Edéa (Cameroon). American Journal of Water Resources. 2019; 7(1):1-10. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-7-1-1

Abstract

In order to assess the physicochemical and heavy metal properties of groundwater consumed in Edéa (Cameroon), 8 boreholes were randomly chosen from 8 sites and their suitability was evaluated using three norms viz Cameroonian Norm (NC207:2003-02) and International standards including (CODEX: 108-1981 and European Union, EU:1998). Water samples were collected in triplicates bimonthly and analyzed using standard methods. Physicochemical analysis showed high temperatures with a mean value of (30.26 ±2.4) °C, acidic pH 5.94±0.34 and very weak mineralization leading to an electrical conductivity value of (134, 96 ± 49.59) µS/cm. The relative abundance of major ions was Ca2+>Mg2+>Na+> NH4+>K+ for cations and NO-3> HCO-3-> PO43-> SO42->Cl- for anions. All these ions fell within acceptable limits recommended by NC207:2003-0 boreholes 2, CODEX: 108-1981 and EU: 1998 with an exception for nitrates, ammonium and phosphate contents which were above acceptable limits. Among heavy metals analyzed, results showed that only lead and manganese values were above the standards’; all boreholes were contaminated by Lead while only 32.5% was contaminated by Manganese. The main water types were Mg-Ca-SO43--Cl- and Mg-Ca-HCO3- can’t result to an alteration of the aquifer matrix (dissolution of Gypsum chloride) and influence of anthropogenic activities through infiltration of agricultural, industrial and domestic waste water. These results showed that water of Edéa is not suitable for human consumption and must be appropriately treated before any usage.

Keywords:
borehole physicochemical properties heavy metals hydrochemicalfacie Norms

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

References:

[1]  N’diaye A. Etude bactériologique des eaux de boissons vendues en sachet dans quatre communes d’Abidjan. Université de Bamako: Faculté de Médecine, de Pharmacie et d’odonto-stomatologie Mali, (2008), 166p.
 
[2]  WHO. Word Health Organization Guidelines for Drinking- Water quality. First Addedum to (ed) 3rd press, Geneva, 515 (2006).
 
[3]  Kuitcha D., Kamgang V., Sigha L., Lienou G., And Ekodeck G. Water supply, sanitation and health risks in Yaoundé, Cameroon. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, (2008) 2, 11, pp 379-386.
 
[4]  Raafat A. Mandour. Improvement of drinking water (surface and ground) quality, beneficial to human use. American journal of water resources. (2013), 1(2), 5-ç.
 
[5]  Ako A.A., Shimada J., Hosono T., Ichiyanagi K., Nkeng E.G., Fantong Y.W., Takem G.E.E., Ntankoua N.R. Evaluation of groundwater quality and its suitability for drinking, domestic and agricultural uses in the Banana Plain (Mbanga, Njombe, Penja) of the Cameroon volcanic line. Environ. Geochem. Health, (2011), 33: 559-575.
 
[6]  Mafany G.T. and Fantong W.Y. Groundwater quality in Cameroon and its vulnerability to pollution. Taylor and Francis, Balkema, Rotterdam, (2006), pp.47-55.
 
[7]  Nkengfack Hilaire, Edmond Noubissi Domguia, François Kamajou. Analyse des déterminants de l’offre de l’eau potable au Cameroun. < hal-01510111>. 2017, 22p.
 
[8]  MINEE. Plan d’action national de gestion intégrée des ressources en eau (PANGIRE) : état des lieux du secteur, (2009), 79P.
 
[9]  Wotchoko P., Tita M.A., Kouankap N.G.P., Alice M., Nkemji J.Z., Guedjeo C.S., Kamgang K.V. Physico-chemical analysis of water quality of springs in Bafia-Muyuka, North-Eastern Flank of Mount Cameroon (South West Region, Cameroon volcanic line). American Journal of Water Resources, (2016), 4(5): 111-120.
 
[10]  Magha A, Margaret Tita Awah, Gus Djibril Kouankap Nono, Pierre Wotchoko, Mispa Ayuk Tabot, Veronique Kamgang Kabeyene. Physico-Chemical and Bacteriological Characterization of Spring and Well Water in Bamenda III (NW Region, Cameroon). American Journal of Environmental Protection. (2015), Vol. 4, No. 3, pp. 163-173.
 
[11]  Teikeu A.W., Meli’I L.J., NJoandjock N.P., Tabod C.T., Nyam A.E.F., Arétouyap Z. Assessment of groundwater quality in Yaoundé area, Cameroon using geostatistical and statistical approaches. Environ. Earth Sci., (2016), 75(21): 1-15.
 
[12]  Jain P, Sharma J.D, Sohu D, Sharma P. Chemical analysis of drinking water of villages of Sanganer Tehsil, Jaipur District. Int. J. Environ. Sci. Tech., (2005), Vol. 2, N°4 373-379.
 
[13]  Edge, T., J.M. Byrne, R. Johnson, W. Robertson and R. Stevenson. Pathogènes d'origine hydrique : Dans Menaces pour les sources d'eau potable et les écosystèmes aquatiques au Canada. Institut national de recherche sur les eaux, Burlington, Ontario. NWRI Scientific Assessment Report Series No. 1, (2001). 72p.
 
[14]  Davis R., Hirji R.Water Quality: Assessment and protection. Water Resources and Environment Technical Note D.1, The World Bank. Washington, D.C., (2003), 32p.
 
[15]  Djuikom E. Qualité bactériologique et physico-chimique des cours d’eau du réseau du Mfoundi à Yaoundé. Thèse doctorale de 3ème cycle. Faculté des Sciences de l’Université de Yaoundé-I, Yaoundé I, (1998) 165p.
 
[16]  Koaum K.G.R., Rossilon F. Mpakam G.H. and Nome A. Enjeux sanitaires, socio-économiques et environnementaux liés à la réutilisation des eaux usées dans le maraichage urbain: cas du bassin versant de l’Abiergué (Yaoundé-Cameroun). Vertigo-La revue en sciences de l’environnement, (2010), 10(2): 13p.
 
[17]  Nola M., Njine T. Et Boutin C. Variabilité de la qualité des eaux souterraines dans quelques stations de Yaoundé (Cameroun). Mémoires Biospéologie, (1998), 25: 183-191.
 
[18]  Wethe J, Radoux M Et Tanawa E. Assainissement des eaux usées et risques socio sanitaires et environnementaux en zone d'habitats planifiés de Yaoundé (Cameroun). Vertigo Revue des sciences de l’environnement, (2003), 4, 1, pp 1-12.
 
[19]  Kuitcha D., Kamgang V., Sigha L., Lienou G. and Ekodeck G. Water supply, sanitation and health risks in Yaoundé, Cameroon. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, (2008), 2, 11, pp 379-386.
 
[20]  Takem G.E.E., Chandra sekharam P., Ayonghe S.N. and Thambidurai P. Pollution characteristics of alluvial groundwater from springs and borewells in semi-urban informal settlements of Douala, Cameroon, Western Africa. Environ. Earth Sci., (2010), 61: 287-298.
 
[21]  Mpakam H., Kamgamg B., Kouam G., Bemmo N., Ekodeck G.,. L’accès à l’eau potable et à l’assainissement dans les villes des pays en développement (cas de Bafoussam au Cameroun). Vertigo, revue en Sciences de l’Environnement, (2006), 7, 2, pp 10.
 
[22]  Arétouyap Z., Njandjock P.N., Ekoro N.H., Meli’I L.J, Lepatio T.S.A.. Investigation of groundwater quality control in Adamawa-Cameroon Region. Journal of Applied Sciences, (2014), 14(19): 2309-2319.
 
[23]  Action Against Hunger (AAH). Étude sur l’accessibilité à l’eau potable des habitants de Maroua urbain et péri urbain, (1999) 11 p.
 
[24]  Normes Camerounaise (NC 207: 2003 - 02): Norme camerounaise sur l’eau de consommation.
 
[25]  Codex Stan Norme 108-1981. Norme pour les eaux minérales naturelles.
 
[26]  Normes De L'UE (1998). Norme sur l'eau potable Directive du conseil 98/83/EC sur la qualité de l'eau attendue pour la consommation humaine.
 
[27]  J. B Suchel. M. Tsalefac: Climate, Regional Atlas of South Cameroon, Ortom, Paris, (1995), PP 8-9.
 
[28]  Tuekam R.,. Essai de biotypologie faunistique des eaux souterraines de quelques localités des régions du Centre et Littoral du Cameroun : influence de quelques facteurs abiotiques. Doctorat en Biologie des Organismes Animaux. UY1. Yaoundé, (2013), 291 p.
 
[29]  ALM CABINET. Rapport d’audit environnemental ALUCAM, (2009), 154p.
 
[30]  Rodier J., Legube B., Merlet N. L’Analyse de l’eau. 9e édition; entièrement mise à jour, Ed. Dunod, Paris, 2009, 1511p.
 
[31]  Piper A.M. A graphic procedure in the geochemical interpretation of water analyses. American Geophysics Union Transcript., (1944), 25: 914-929.
 
[32]  Chippaux J-P., Pernot P., Jouanneau D., Ciornei G., Moulin-Esnart P. and Couret D. Evaluation de la potabilité de l’eau dans une zone peuplé du Sahel sénégalais: Niakhar. Environ. Risques Santé, (2007), 6(5): 373-381.
 
[33]  WHO. Assessment of Fracture Risk and its Application to Screening for Postmenopausal Osteoporosis. WHO Technical Report Series 843. Geneva: (1994), WHO.
 
[34]  WHO. Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality. 3rd Edn, Vol 1, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, (2004), 515pp.
 
[35]  Matini L., J.M. Moutou., M.S. Kongo-Mantono: Evaluation hydro-chimique des eaux souterraines en milieu urbain au Sud-Ouest de Brazzaville, Congo. Afrique SCIENCE, (2009), 05(1) 82-98.
 
[36]  Gilliam J.W., Daniels R.B. and Lutz J.F. Nitrogen content of shallow ground water in the North Carolina Coastal Plain. J Environ Qual, (1974), 3, 2, 147-151.
 
[37]  Klendshoj, N.C. and Rejent, T.A. Tissue levels of some poisoning agents less frequently encountered. J. Forensic Sci, (1966), 11(1): 75-80.
 
[38]  Adams S., Titusa R., Pietersen K., Tredoux G. and Harris C.. Hydrochemical characteristics of aquifers near Sutherland in the western Karoo, South Africa. J. Hydrol, (2001), 241: 91-103.
 
[39]  Edet A., Nganje T.N., Ukpong A.L. and Ekwere A.S: Ground water chemistry and quality of Nigeria: A status review. Afr.J. Environ. Sci Technol, (2011), 5(13): 1152-1169.
 
[40]  Engome R.Wotany, Samuel N. Ayonghe, Wilson Y., Fantong Mengnjo, J. Wirmvem and Takeshi Ohba.: Hydrogeochemical and Anthropogenic Influence on the Quality of Water Sources in the Rio Del Rey Basin, South Western, Cameroon, Gulf of Guinea. (2013), Vol.7(12), pp. 1053-1069.
 
[41]  Karanth K.R.: Groundwater assessment: development and management; Tatamc Grawl Hill Publishing Company Limited; 7 West Patel Nagar,New Delhi; (1987), 488pp.
 
[42]  Ngwa M. Hydrochemical variation of groundwater in Bafut subdivision (North West Region, Cameroon), (2013).
 
[43]  Ruqia N., Muslim K., Muhammad M., Hameed U.R. Naveed U.R., Surrya S., Nosheen A., Muhammed S., Mohib U., Muhammed R. and Zeenat S. Accumulation of heavy metals (Ni, Cu, Cd, Cr, Pb, Zn, Fe) in the soil, water and plants and analysis of physico-chemical parameters of soil and water collected from Tanda Dam Kohat. Journam of Pharmaceutical Science and Research, (2015), 7(3): 89-97.
 
[44]  Glorennec philippe ,Laperche valerie, Guyonn et Dominique. Plomb et santé: importance de la spéciation, Geosciences, (2007) , pp. 40-45.
 
[45]  Martin, S., Griswold, W.. Human health effects of heavy metals, Environmental Science and Technology briefs for citizens, Centre for Hazardous Substance Research, Issue 15, (2009).
 
[46]  Mofor A.N., Tamungang N.B.E., Mvondo-Zé A.D., Kome K.G., Mbene K. Assessment of physico-chemical and heavy metals properties of some agricultural soils of Awing, North West, Cameroon. Archives of Agricultural and Environmental Science, (2017), 2(4): 277-286.
 
[47]  Ako A.A., Shimada J., Hosono T., Ichiyanagi K., Nkeng E.G., Fantong Y.W., Takem G.E.E., Ntankoua N.R.. Evaluation of groundwater quality and its suitability for drinking, domestic and agricultural uses in the Banana Plain (Mbanga, Njombe, Penja) of the Cameroon volcanic line. Environ. Geochem. Health, (2011), 33: 559-575.
 
[48]  Bouhlassa S., Alechcheikh C., Kabiri L. Origine de la minéralisation et de la détérioration de la qualité des eaux souterraines de la nappe phréatique du Quaternaire du bassin versant de Rheris. Errachidia, Maroc, (2008), 8p.