American Journal of Vehicle Design
ISSN (Print): ISSN Pending ISSN (Online): ISSN Pending Website: Editor-in-chief: Dr. SRINIVASA VENKATESHAPPA CHIKKOL
Open Access
Journal Browser
American Journal of Vehicle Design. 2014, 2(1), 32-42
DOI: 10.12691/ajvd-2-1-5
Open AccessArticle

Modeling and Experimental Design Approach for Integration of Conventional Power Steering and a Steer-By-Wire System Based on Active Steering Angle Control

Eid S. Mohamed1, and Saeed A. Albatlan2

1Automotive and Tractors Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Helwan University, Mataria, Cairo, Egypt

2Automotive Engineering Department, Higher Technological institute, 10th Tenth of Ramadan city, 6th of October Branch, Cairo, Egypt

Pub. Date: December 07, 2014

Cite this paper:
Eid S. Mohamed and Saeed A. Albatlan. Modeling and Experimental Design Approach for Integration of Conventional Power Steering and a Steer-By-Wire System Based on Active Steering Angle Control. American Journal of Vehicle Design. 2014; 2(1):32-42. doi: 10.12691/ajvd-2-1-5


With the continuous development of vehicle and electronic industry, Steering by Wire (SBW) is replacing the traditional steering device of vehicle. The SBW is reproducing realistic steering feel, improving the vehicle returnability and it reduces the oscillatory effect of the steering system when the vehicle passes through an uneven road. This paper aims to present an overview of the SBW with integrated hydraulic power steering (HPS) in commercial vehicle. The mathematical model has been used to evaluate the performance of SBW system by using Matlab/Simulink software package, a PID controller and Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) optimization techniques are employed to arrive at an optimal controller for the SBW to monitor the system dynamic behavior and stability characteristics. The test rig of SBW system showed a great benefit in modifying a conventional HPS system to be electronically SBW. Necessary sensors and actuators replaced the conventional steering wheel. A microprocessor and interfacing circuits are designed to active control of DC motor. Also a SBW should be considered as requirement for a DC motor actuator vehicle steer angle for operating at given desired reference value and a proper torque to boost undergoing for operating under different conditions. The steering response of practical tests depends upon uncertain quantities like front axle weight, damping and a varying friction condition. Experimental results of SBW show that high performance and robustness are achieved.

steering-by-wire steering feeling hydraulic power steering steering torque SBW dynamic model a stability analysis of SBW PID controller and LQR optimization techniques

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


Figure of 27


[1]  A.Badawy, J. Zuraski, F. Bolourchi and A. Chandy (1999), “Modeling and analysis of an electric power steering system,” SAE Technical Paper, 1999-01-0399.
[2]  Parmar M. and Hung JY.( 2004) “A sensorless optimal control system for an automotive electric power assist steering system” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, 2004,51(2): 290-298.
[3]  Camuffo I., Caviasso G., Pascali, L. and Pesce, M. (2002) “Simulation Tools and Evaluation Criteria for Steering Wheel Feel Improvement of an Electric Power Steering System,” SAE Technical Paper 2002-01-1593, 2002.
[4]  Dawane M. (2010) “Modeling and analysis of power steering system”, International Journal of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 211-21, 2010.
[5]  Zeng Qun (2012) “The Design of Power Assisted Characteristic Curve for Electric Power Steering System” Journal of Convergence Information Technology (JCIT), Volume 7, Number 17, Sep 2012.
[6]  Zaremba A.T., Liubakka M.K. and Stuntz R.M. (1998)” Control and Steering Feel issues in the design of an electric power steering system”. IEEE, Proceedings of American Control Conference; pp. 36-40.
[7]  D. Odenthal, T. Bunte, H. Heitzer and C. Eiker (2002) “How to make steer-by-wire feel like power steering”. In Proc. 15th IFAC World Congress on Automatic Control, Barcelona, spain, 2002.
[8]  Se-Wook OH, Ho-Chol, Seok-Chan and et al. (2004) “The Design of a Controller for the Steer-by-Wire System”, JSME international Journal Series C, Vol.47, No3, 2004, pp. 38-44.
[9]  Huipeng C., Qiqi Yu, Lingjun Z. and Guojin C. (2013) “Study on Steering by Wire Controller Based on Improved H∞Algorithm” IJCSI International Journal of Computer Science Issues, Vol. 10, Issue 1, No 2, January 2013 ISSN (Print): 1694-0784.
[10]  Asai, S., Kuroyanagi, H., Takeuchi, S., Takahashi, T. and et al., (2004) “Development of a Steer-by-Wire System with Force Feedback Using a Disturbance Observer,” SAE Technical Paper 2004-01-1100, 2004.
[11]  Oh S., Yun S., Chae H., Jang S. and et al, (2003) “The development of an advanced control method for the SBW system to improve the vehicle maneuvrability and stability”, Proceedings of SAE International Congress and Exhibition, 2003-01-0578, 2003.
[12]  Cortesao R. and Bajcinca N.( 2004) “Model-matching control for steer-by-wire vehicles with under-actuated structure”, Intelligent Robots and Systems, Proceedings. 2004 IEEE/RSJ International Conference, vol. 8, pp. 1148-1153, 1966.
[13]  Amberkar S., Bolourchi F., Demerly J., and Millsap S., (2004) “A Control System Methodology for Steer by Wire Systems,” SAE Technical Paper 2004-01-1106, 2004.
[14]  Ronnberg, M. (2004) “Implementation of a Control System for a Scaled Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle” Master of Science Thesis, Department of Machine and Vehicle Systems Chalmers University of Technology Gothenburg, Sweden, September.
[15]  A.Marouf, C. Sentouh, M. Djemai and P. Pudlo (2011) “Control of an Electric Power Assisted Steering System Using Reference Model”2011 50th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control and European Control Conference (CDC-ECC), Orlando, FL, USA.
[16]  Huang, G. and Lee S. (2008) “PC-based PID speed control in DC motor” International Conference on Audio, Language and Image Processing, ICALIP 2008, pp. 400-407.
[17]  Shwetha G. N., H. R. Ramesh, and S. R. Shankapal (2013) “Modeling, simulation and implementation of a proportional-derivative controlled column-type EPS” International Journal of Enhanced Research in Science Technology & Engineering, ISSN: 2319-7463, Vol. 2 Issue 9, September-2013, and pp: 10-19.
[18]  Ankit R., and Pratibha T. (2013) “Optimal Tuning of Fractional Order PID Controller for DC Motor Speed Control Using Particle Swarm Optimization” International Journal of Soft Computing and Engineering (IJSCE) ISSN: 2231-2307, Volume-3, Issue-2, pp 150-157.