American Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
ISSN (Print): 2333-4592 ISSN (Online): 2333-4606 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/ajssm Editor-in-chief: Apply for this position
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
American Journal of Sports Science and Medicine. 2017, 5(4), 75-81
DOI: 10.12691/ajssm-5-4-3
Open AccessArticle

Nutritional Status, Oxidant/Antioxidant and Inflammatory Markers in Scholar Athletes Adolescents

Assia Bouchouicha1, Hanane Ghomari-Boukhatem1 and Malika Bouchenak1,

1Laboratoire de Nutrition Clinique et Métabolique. Faculté des Sciences de la Nature et de la Vie, Université d’Oran1 Ahmed Ben Bella, BP 1524 El M’Naouer, 31000 Oran, Algeria

Pub. Date: December 20, 2017

Cite this paper:
Assia Bouchouicha, Hanane Ghomari-Boukhatem and Malika Bouchenak. Nutritional Status, Oxidant/Antioxidant and Inflammatory Markers in Scholar Athletes Adolescents. American Journal of Sports Science and Medicine. 2017; 5(4):75-81. doi: 10.12691/ajssm-5-4-3

Abstract

In the last two or three decades, physical activity (PA) has gained increasing recognition as being essential for maintaining good health and improving quality of life for all ages. To evaluate the nutritional status, oxidant/antioxidant, and inflammatory markers, in sports adolescents, a cross sectional study has done in west Algeria. A total of 110 athletes adolescents from special sport classes, aged 11-17 years, were compared to a non athletes group (n=60). Blood pressure, anthropometric and serum parameters were measured. Daily energy intake (DEI) was estimated using 24 hours recall, followed by a 3-days record. Energy expenditure (EE) was evaluated by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-short form (IPAQ-S). Oxidant/antioxidant and inflammatory markers were determined. An increase in body weight and height (p<0.001) was noted in athletes compared to non athletes. DEI was similar in both groups, whereas EE was higher in athletes than non athletes (p<0.001). Serum triacylglycerol (TG) values were lower in athletes group than in non athletes (p<0.05). Enhanced values were observed in glutathione peroxidase (GPx) (p<0.001), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) (p<0.05) activity, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) (p<0.01) in athletes compared to non athletes. Significant relationships were found between height, weight, albumin, GPx, TNF-α, IL-1, and EE. Significant associations were noted between GPx (OR=0.14; 95% CI 0.03, 1.05), inflammatory markers TNF-α (OR=0.47; 95% CI 0.28, 0.80), IL-1 (OR=1.17; 95% CI 0.28, 0.80) and physical activity. Significant relationships were found between weight (P < 0.001), height (P < 0.01), albumin, GPx, IL-1, TNFα (P < 0.05) and EE. In spite of inadequate DEI in athletes adolescents, beneficial effect of sport is observed by lowering serum TG concentrations. However, more research in this area is warranted to clarify sport nutrition needs to provide better and healthy nutritional guidance to young athletes.

Keywords:
athlete adolescent energy expenditure daily energy intake oxidant/antioxidant status inflammatory markers

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

References:

[1]  World Health Organization (WHO). “Global recommendations on physical activity for health,” Geneva, Switzerland: WHO Press. ISBN: 978 92 4 159 997 9, 2010.
 
[2]  Ridley, K., Ainsworth, B.E. and Olds, T.S. “Development of a compendium of energy expenditures for youth,” International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 5, 45, 2008.
 
[3]  Meskaite, A., Raistenskis, J., Stukas, R. and Kowalski, I.M. “Daily food intake in adolescents: Relation to parameters of physical fitness and weight status,” Polish Annals of Medicine, 20, 8-12, 2013.
 
[4]  Gracia-Marco L, Valtue ña J, Ortega FB, Pérez-López, F.R., Vicente-Rodríguez, G., Breidenassel, C., Ferrari, M., Molnar, D., Widhalm, K., Henauw, S., Kafatos, A., Diaz, L.E., Gottrand, F., Maiani, G., Stehle, P., Castillo, M.J. , Moreno, L.A. and González-Grosset, M. “Iron and vitamin status biomarkers and its association with physical fitness in adolescents: the HELENA study,” Journal of Applied Physiology, 113, 566-573, 2012.
 
[5]  Cárdenas-Cárdenas, L. M., Burguete-Garcia, A.I., Estrada-Velasco, B. I., López-Islasb, C., Peralta-Romeroc, J., Cruzc, M. and Galván-Portillo, M. “Leisure-time physical activity and cardiometabolic risk among children and adolescents,” Journal of Pediatrics (Rio J), 42, 136-191, 2015.
 
[6]  Purcell, L.K. “Sport nutrition for young athletes,” Paediatrics and Child Health, 18(4), 200- 202, 2013.
 
[7]  Montfort-Steiger, V. and Williams, C.A. “Carbohydrate intake considerations for young athletes,” Journal of Sports Science & Medicine, 6, 343-352, 2007.
 
[8]  Djordjevic, D., Cubrilo, D., Macura, M,. Barudzic, N., Djuric, D. and Jakovljevic, V. “The influence of training status on oxidative stress in young male handball players,” Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, 351, 251-259, 2011.
 
[9]  Cakir-Atabek, H., Demir, S., PinarbaŞili, R. D. and Gündüz N. “Effects of different resistance training intensity on indices of oxidative stress,” Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 24, 2491-2497, 2010.
 
[10]  Wärnberg, J., Nova, E., Romeo, J., Moreno, L. A., Sjöström, M. and Marcos, A. “Lifestyle related determinants of inflammation in adolescence,” British Journal of Nutrition, 98, S116-S120, 2007.
 
[11]  Thomas, N. E. and Williams, D. R. “Inflammatory factors, physical activity, and physical fitness in young people,” Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 18, 543-556, 2008.
 
[12]  Winkleby, M. A., Jatulis, D. E., Frank, E. and Fortmann, S.P. “Socioeconomic status and health: how education, income, and occupation contribute to risk factors for cardiovascular disease,” American Journal of Public Health 82, 816-820, 1992.
 
[13]  Craig, C.L., Marshall, A.L., Sjöström, M., Bauman, A.E., Booth, M.L., Ainsworth, B.E. and Oja, P. “International physical activity questionnaire: 12-country reliability and validity,” Medicine and Sciences in Sports and Exercise, 35, 1381-1395, 2003.
 
[14]  Ainsworth, B.E., Haskell, W.L., Whitt, M.C., Irwin, M.L, Swartz, A.M, Strath, S.J. and Leon, A.S. “Compendium of physical activity: an update of activity codes and MET intensities,” Medicine and Sciences in Sports and Exercise, 32, S498-S516, 2000.
 
[15]  Musse, J.P., and Musse, N. GENI (Gestion d’Enquêtes Nutritionnelles Informatisées), version 6, micro 6, France, 2000.
 
[16]  Quintanilha, A.T., Packer, L., Davies, J.M., Racanelli, T.L. and Davies, K.J. “Membrane effects of vitamin E deficiency bioenergetic and surface charge density studies of skeletal muscle and liver mitochondri,”. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 393, 32-47, 1982.
 
[17]  Ribeyre, J., Fellmann, N., Vernet, J., Delaître, M., Chamoux, A., Coudert, J. and Vermorel, M. “Components and variations in daily energy expenditure of athletic and non athletic adolescents in free living conditions,” British Journal of Nutrition, 84, 531-539, 2000.
 
[18]  Kelley, G.A. and Kelley, K.S. “Aerobic exercise and lipids and lipoproteins in men: a meta analysis of randomized controlled trials,” The Journal of Men's Health & Gender, 3, 61-70, 2006.
 
[19]  Aerenhouts, D., Deriemaeker, P., Hebbelinck, M. and Clarys, P. “Energy and macronutrient intake in adolescent sprint athletes: a follow-up study,” Journal of Sports Sciences, 29, 73-82, 2011.
 
[20]  Hoogenboom, B.J., Morris, J., Morris, C. and Schaefer, K. “Nutritional knowledge and eating behaviors of female, collegiate swimmers,” North American Journal of Sports Physical Therapy, 4, 139-148, 2009.
 
[21]  Phillips, S.M.. “A Brief Review of Critical Processes in Exercise-Induced Muscular Hypertrophy,” Sports Medicine, 44, (Suppl 1):S71-S77, 2014
 
[22]  Cotugna, N., Vickery, C.E. and McBee, S. “Sports Nutrition for Young Athletes,” Journal of School Nursing, 21, 323-328, 2005.
 
[23]  Jenkins, D. and Reaburn P. “Guiding the Young Athlet,” St Leonards, Australia: Allen & Unwin, 146 -147, 2000.
 
[24]  Otten, J. J., Hellwig, J.P. and Meyers, L. D, Dietary reference intakes: The essential guide to nutrient requirements, National Academies Press, Washington, 2006, 154.
 
[25]  Croll, J.K., Neumark-Sztainer, D., Wall, M., Perry, C. and Harnack, L. “Adolescents involved in weight related and power team sports have better eating patterns and nutrient intakes than non-sport-involved adolescents,” Journal of American Dietetic Association, 106, 709-717, 2006.
 
[26]  Juzwiak, C.R., Amancio, O.M., Vitalle, M.S., Pinheiro, M.M. and Szejnfeld, V.L. “Body composition and nutritional profile of male adolescent tennis players,” Journal of Sports Science, 26, 1209-1217, 2008.
 
[27]  Hoch, A.Z., Goossen, K. and Kretschmer T. “Nutritional requirements of the child and teenage athlete,” Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America, 19, 373-398, 2008.
 
[28]  Rodriquez, N.R., DiMarco, N.M. and Langley, S. “Position of the American dietetic association, dietitians of Canada & the American college of sports medicine,” Journal of American Dietetic Association, 109, 509-527, 2009.
 
[29]  Anderson, L., Orme, P. Naughton, R.J., Close, G.L., Milsom, J., Rydings, D., O’Boyle, A., Di Michele, R., Louis, J., Hambly, C., Roger Speakman, J., Morgans, R., Drust, B. and Morton, J.P “Energy Intake and Expenditure of Professional Soccer Players of the English Premier League: Evidence of Carbohydrate Periodization,” International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 27, 228-238, 2017.
 
[30]  Garcia-Continente, X., Allué, N., Pérez-Giménez, A., Ariza, C., Sánchez-Martínez, F., López, M.J. and Nebot, M. “Hábitos alimentarios, conductas sedentarias y sobrepeso y obesidad en adolescentes de Barcelona,” Anales de Pediatria (Barc), 83, 3-10, 2015.
 
[31]  Dutra, G.F., Kaufmann, C.C., Pretto, A.D. and Albernaz, E.P. “Television viewing habits and their influence on physical activity and childhood overweight,” Journal of Pediatrics, (Rio J) 91, 346-351, 2015.
 
[32]  Ferrari, G.L., Araujo, T.L., Oliveira, L., Matsudo, M., Mire, E., Barreira, T.V., Tudor-Locke, C. and Katzmarzyk, P.T. “Association between television viewing and physical activity in 10-year old Brazilian children,” Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 12, 1401-1408, 2015.
 
[33]  Sen, C.K. “Oxidants and Antioxidants in exercise,” Journal of Applied Physiology, 79, 675-686, 1995.
 
[34]  Ji, LL. “Exercise and oxidative stress: Role of cellular antioxidant systems,” Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews, 135-166, 1995.
 
[35]  Naghizadeh, H., Afzalpour, M.E. and Zarban, A. “The comparison of antioxidant status and lipid profile of karate athletes with non athletes,” Journal of Birjand University of Medical Sciences, 16, 54-61, 2009.
 
[36]  Metin, G., Atukeren, P., Alturfan, A.A., Gülyaşar, T., Kaya, M. and Gümüştaş, M. K. “Lipid peroxydation, erythrocyte, superoxyde dismutase activity and trace metals in young male footballers,” Younsei Medical Journal, 44, 979-986, 2003.
 
[37]  Cazzola, R., Russo-Volpe, S., Cervato, G. and Cestaro, B. “Biochemical assessments of oxidative stress, erythrocyte membrane fluidity and antioxidant status in professional soccer players and sedentary controls,” European Journal of Clinical Investigation, 33(10): 924-930, 2003.
 
[38]  Clarkson, P.M. and Thompson, H.S. "Antioxidants: what role do they play in physical activity and health?” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 72: S637- S646, 2000.
 
[39]  Said, M., Feki, Y., Aouni, Z., Machghoul, S., Hamza, M. and Amri, M. “Effets des activités physiques intenses et soutenues sur les cellules immunitaires circulantes et la production des cytokines pro-inflammatoires chez des sujets entrainés et non entrainés,” Sci Sports, 24, 229-237, 2009.
 
[40]  Drenth, JP., Van Uum, SH., Van Deuren, M., Pesman, GJ., Van der Ven-Jongekrijg, J. and Van der Meer, J.W. “Endurance run increases circulating IL-6 and IL-1ra but downregulates in vivo TNFα and IL-1β production,” Journal of Applied Physiology, 79, 1497-1503, 1995.
 
[41]  Suzuki, K., Nakaji, S., Yamada, M., Totsuka, M., Sato, K. and Suqawara, K. “Systemic inflammatory response to exhaustive exercise,” Cytokine kinetics. Exercise Immunology Review, 8, 6-48, 2002.