American Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
ISSN (Print): 2333-4592 ISSN (Online): 2333-4606 Website: Editor-in-chief: Ratko Pavlović
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American Journal of Sports Science and Medicine. 2017, 5(1), 1-4
DOI: 10.12691/ajssm-5-1-1
Open AccessArticle

Eyes Open/Closed Conditions and Age-level Differences in Foot Pressure during Stepping with a Stipulated Tempo

Hiroki Aoki1, , Shinichi Demura2 and Masato Ohno3

1National Institute of Technology, Fukui College, General course, Fukui, Japan

2Kanazawa University, Ishikawa, Japan

3National Institute of Technology, Yonago College, General course, Tottori, Japan

Pub. Date: February 09, 2017

Cite this paper:
Hiroki Aoki, Shinichi Demura and Masato Ohno. Eyes Open/Closed Conditions and Age-level Differences in Foot Pressure during Stepping with a Stipulated Tempo. American Journal of Sports Science and Medicine. 2017; 5(1):1-4. doi: 10.12691/ajssm-5-1-1


A certain pressure (static load) acts as grounding to support the human body during static standing. However, a pressure load from the leg (dynamic load) changes with time and may differ between stepping in place with eyes open and closed. This study aimed to examine the difference in foot pressure between the eyes open and closed conditions and among age-levels during stepping with a stipulated tempo. The participants were 86 healthy men aged between 10 and 80 years. Sample sizes for each decade’s age group ranged from 10 to 13. We measured their foot pressure while they stepped 20 times while matching a tempo of 100 bpm. A mean of left–right foot pressure (ratio of pressure to weight) of 20 times was used as an evaluation parameter. Stepping with eyes open and closed produced a significant, strong relationship (r = 0.90) in the foot pressure value. In the results of two-way ANOVA (eyes open/closed difference and age-level difference) and multiple comparisons, eye conditions showed a significant difference only in participants who were in their 80s, with greater foot pressure with eyes open. When stepping with eyes open, 10 and 20 age-levels had greater foot pressure than 50 to 80 age-levels, and 30 to 60 had greater pressure than 70 and 80 age-levels. When stepping with eyes closed, 10 and 20 age-levels had greater pressure than 40 to 80 age-levels, and 30 to 80 had greater pressure than 70 and 80 age-levels. Although the foot pressure value showed a significant linear regression with age both with eyes open and closed, an insignificant difference was found between regression coefficients. In conclusion, regardless of eyes open or closed, the foot pressure value during stepping with a stipulated tempo decreases with age and is low in the eyes closed condition compared to eyes open in the super elderly over 80-years-old, thus differing from other age-levels.

aging step dynamic balance

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