American Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
ISSN (Print): 2333-4592 ISSN (Online): 2333-4606 Website: Editor-in-chief: Ratko Pavlović
Open Access
Journal Browser
American Journal of Sports Science and Medicine. 2013, 1(3), 47-51
DOI: 10.12691/ajssm-1-3-4
Open AccessArticle

Effects of Repeat Training of the Controlled Force Exertion Test on Dominant and Non-dominant Hands

H. Kubota1, , S. Demura2 and M. Uchiyama3

1Faculty of Education, Gifu University, Gifu, Japan

2Graduate School of Natural Science & Technology, Kanazawa University, Kakuma, Kanazawa, Ishikawa, Japan

3Research and Education Center for Comprehensive Science, Akita Prefectural University, Kaidobata-Nishi, Shimoshinjo-Nakano, Akita, Japan

Pub. Date: September 25, 2013

Cite this paper:
H. Kubota, S. Demura and M. Uchiyama. Effects of Repeat Training of the Controlled Force Exertion Test on Dominant and Non-dominant Hands. American Journal of Sports Science and Medicine. 2013; 1(3):47-51. doi: 10.12691/ajssm-1-3-4


This study aimed to examine the effects of repeated force exertion training on a performance in the controlled force exertion (CFE) test, and the differences in effect the training has on the CFE test performances between the dominant and non-dominant hands. The subjects were the training and non-training groups. They performed the CFE test where their handgrip strengths were matched to demand values which constantly changed. The training group performed the CFE test as the repeat training over a 3 week periods. The estimates of CFE in the training group were significantly improved. The improvement of the estimates of both hands on and after 2 weeks was small, and a significant difference was not found between both hands after 3 weeks. In conclusion, the estimates of CFE in the dominant and non-dominant hands were improved by the repeat training. A difference between both hands after 3 weeks was not found.

laterality repeated training coordination motor task handgrip strength

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Dolcos, F., Rice, H.J., Cabeza, R., “Hemispheric asymmentry and aging: right hemisphere decline or asymmetry reduction,” Neurosci Biobehav Rev, 26. 819-825. 2002.
[2]  Geshwind, N., Behan, P., “Left-handedness: Association with immune disease, migraine, and developmental learning disorder,” Proc Natl Acad Sci, 79. 5097-5100. 1982.
[3]  Gur, R.C., Turetsky, B.I., Matsui, M., Yan, M., Bilker, W., Hughett, P., Gur, R.E., “Sex differences in brain gray and white matter in health young adults: Correlations with cognitive performance,” J Neurosci, 19. 4065-4072. 1999.
[4]  Roy, E.A., Bryden, P., Cavill, S., “Hand differences in pegboard performance through development,” Brain Cogn, 53. 315-317. 2003.
[5]  Chi, J.G., Dooling, E.C., Gilles, F.H., “Left-right asymmetry of the temporal speech areas of the human fetus,” Arch Neurol, 34. 346-348. 1977.
[6]  Noguchi, T., Demura, S., Aoki, H., “Superiority of dominant and nondominant hands in static strength and controlled force exertion,” Percept Mot Skills, 109. 339-346. 2009.
[7]  Ohtsuki, H., Hasebe, S., Okano, M., Furuse, T., “Comparison of surgical results of responders and non-responders to prism adaptation test in intermittent exotropia,” Acta Ophthalmol Scand, 75. 528-531. 1997.
[8]  Nagasawa, Y., Demura, S., Yamaji, S., Kobayashi, H., Matsuzawa, J., “Ability to coordinate exertion of force by the dominant hand: comparisons among university students and 65-to 78-year-old men and women,” Percept Mot Skills, 90. 995-1007. 2000.
[9]  Nagasawa, Y., Demura, S., “Development of an apparatus to estimate coordinated exertion of force,” Percept Mot Skills, 94. 899-913. 2002.
[10]  Nagasawa, Y., Demura, S., Kitabayashi, T., Concurrent validity of tests to measure the coordinated exertion of force by computerized target pursuit,” Percep Mot Skills, 98 (2). 551-560. 2004.
[11]  Kubota, H., Demura, S., “Gender differences and laterality in maximal handgrip strength and controlled force exertion in young adults,” Health, 3 (11). 684-688. 2011.
[12]  Kubota, H., Demura, S., Kawabata, H., “Laterality and Age-level Differences between young women and elderly women in controlled force exertion (CFE),” Arch Gerontol Geriatr, 54. e68-e72. 2012.
[13]  Demura, S., Yamaji, S., Goshi, F., Nagasawa, Y., “Lateral dominance of legs in maximal muscle power, muscular endurance, and grading ability,” Percept Mot Skills, 93. 11-23. 2001.
[14]  Annett, M., “Hand preference and the laterality of cerebral speech,” Cortex, 11. 305-328. 1975.
[15]  Taylor, H.G., Heilman, K.M., “Left-hemisphere motor dominance in right-handers,” Cortex, 16. 587-603. 1980.
[16]  Shimizu, S., Maeda, M., Numata, K., Takao, K., Mito, K., “Hemispheric asymmetry of the brain in the practice of pinch force control,” International Proceeding the 1st World Congress of the International Society of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (ISPRM), In Peek, W.J., Lankhorst, G.J. (Ed.), Italy, Monduzzi Editore, 621-627. 2001.
[17]  Demura, S., Sato, S., Nagasawa, Y., “Re-examination of useful items for determining hand dominance,” Gazz Med Ital-Arch Sci Med, 168 (3). 169-177. 2009.
[18]  Noguchi, T., Demura, S., Nagasawa, Y., Uchiyama, M., “An Examination of Practice and Laterality Effect on the Purdue Pegboard and Moving Beans With Tweezers,” Percept Mot Skills, 102. 265-274. 2006.
[19]  Butki, B.D., “Adaptation to effects of an audience during acquisition of rotary pursuit skill,” Percept Mot Skills, 79. 1151-1159. 1994.
[20]  Noguchi, T., Demura, S., Nagasawa, Y., Uchiyama, M., “The practice effect and its difference of the pursuit roter test with the dominant and non-dominant hands,” J Physiol Anthropol, 24. 589-593. 2005.
[21]  Nakamura, M., Ide, J., Sugi, T., Terada, K., Shibasaki, H., “Method for studying learning effect on manual tracking of randomly moving visual trajectory and its application to normal subjects,” IEICE. J78-D-II (3). 547-558. 1995.
[22]  Stelmach, G.E., Goggin, N.L., “Garcia-Colera A. Movement specification time with age,” Exp Aging Res, 13. 39-46. 1987.