American Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
ISSN (Print): 2333-4592 ISSN (Online): 2333-4606 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/ajssm Editor-in-chief: Ratko Pavlović
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
American Journal of Sports Science and Medicine. 2014, 2(6), 218-221
DOI: 10.12691/ajssm-2-6-3
Open AccessArticle

Effect of Differences in the Exercise Frequency of Young People on Abdominal Strength and Muscle Thickness

Takanori Noguchi1, and Shinichi Demura2

1Department of Industrial Business and Engineering, Fukui University of Technology, Fukui, Japan

2Graduate School of Natural Science & Technology, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Japan

Pub. Date: December 11, 2014

Cite this paper:
Takanori Noguchi and Shinichi Demura. Effect of Differences in the Exercise Frequency of Young People on Abdominal Strength and Muscle Thickness. American Journal of Sports Science and Medicine. 2014; 2(6):218-221. doi: 10.12691/ajssm-2-6-3

Abstract

Differences in the frequency of exercise among individuals increase during adolescence. These individual differences are associated with developmental differences in abdominal muscle groups that are closely related to activities of daily living. We examined the effect of differences in exercise frequency in young people on abdominal strength and muscle thickness. The subjects were 20 young male university athletes who belonged to sports clubs and who exercised >6 days per week for >3 h per day (athlete group: age, 20.1 ± 1.43 years; height, 171.7 ± 6.74 cm; weight, 67.9 ± 10.41 kg) and 20 young university male students who did not habitually exercise (less than twice per week) (nonathlete group: age, 20.1 ± 1.41 years; height, 171.6 ± 5.46 cm; weight, 63.2 ± 8.62 kg). Their physical characteristics (height, weight, and body mass index), abdominal flexion strength, and abdominal muscle thickness (rectus abdominis, external oblique, internal oblique muscles) were measured. Although no significant differences were found in the physical characteristics of either group, abdominal strength and all muscle thickness were significantly greater in the athlete group than that in the nonathlete group. In addition, a relatively high correlation between abdominal strength and muscle thickness was found only in the athlete group (r = 0.73). In conclusion, abdominal strength and muscle thickness were greater in young athletes who frequently exercise compared with that in nonathletes. Abdominal muscle strength increased with increasing abdominal muscle thickness in the athletes but not in the nonathletes.

Keywords:
development of muscle function ultrasound imaging adolescence

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

References:

[1]  Barnekow-Bergkvist, M., Hedberg, G., Janlert, U. and Jansson, E., “Prediction of physical fitness and physical activity level in adulthood by physical performance and physical activity in adolescence--an 18-year follow-up study,” Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports, 8 (5 Pt 1). 299-308. Oct. 1998.
 
[2]  Demura, S., Health and a Sports Science Lecture the 2nd Edition, Tokyo, Japan. Kyorinsyoin, 2011, 105-125. [Japanese]
 
[3]  Duchateau, J., “Bed rest induces neural and contractile adaptations in triceps surae,” Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 27 (12). 1581-1589. Dec. 1995.
 
[4]  El Ouaaid, Z., Shirazi-Adl, A., Plamondon, A. and Larivière, C., “Trunk strength, muscle activity and spinal loads in maximum isometric flexion and extension exertions: a combined in vivo-computational study,” Journal of Biomechanics, 46 (13). 2228-2235. Sep. 2013.
 
[5]  Fleg, J.L. and Lakatta, E.G., “Role of muscle loss in the age associated reduction in VO2 max,” Journal of applied physiology, 65 (3). 1147-1151. Sep. 1988.
 
[6]  Ferrari, A.U., Radaelli, A. and Centola, M., “Aging and the cardiovascular system,” Journal of Applied Physiology, 95 (6). 2591-2597. 2003.
 
[7]  Ferreira, P.H., Ferreira, M.L. and Hodges, P.W., “Changes in recruitment of the abdominal muscles in people with low back pain: ultrasound measurement of muscle activity,” Spine, 29 (22). 2560-2566. Nov. 2004.
 
[8]  Huang, Y.C. and Malina, R.M., “Physical activity and health-related physical fitness in Taiwanese adolescents,” Journal of physiological anthropology and applied human science, 21 (1). 11-9. Jan. 2002.
 
[9]  Hunter, S.K., Thompson, M.W. and Adams, R.D., “Relationships among age-associated strength changes and physical activity level, limb dominance, and muscle group in women,” The journals of gerontology. Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences, 55 (6) A. B264-B273. Jun. 2000.
 
[10]  Izquierdo, M., Aguado, X., Gonzalez, R., López, J.L. and Häkkinen, K., “Maximal and explosive force production capacity and balance performance in men of different ages,” European journal of applied physiology and occupational physiology, 79: 260-267. Feb. 1999.
 
[11]  Macaluso, A. and De Vito, G., “Muscle strength, power and adaptations to resistance training in older people,” European journal of applied physiology, 91 (4). 450-472. Apr. 2004.
 
[12]  Mikkelsson, L., Kaprio, J., Kautiainen, H., Kujala, U., Mikkelsson, M. and Nupponen, H., “School fitness tests as predictors of adult health-related fitness,” American Journal of Human Biology, 18 (3). 342-349. May-Jun. 2006.
 
[13]  Nahhas Rodacki, C.L., Luiz Felix Rodacki, A., Ugrinowitsch, C., Zielinski, D. and Budal da Costa, R., “Spinal unloading after abdominal exercises,” Clinical biomechanics, 23 (1). 8-14. Jan. 2008.
 
[14]  Naka, H. and Demura, S., “Influence of habitual exercise on physique and physical fitness in adolescent male students: From an examination of three-year longitudinal data,” Japanese Journal of Physical Education, 39. 288-304. 1994.
 
[15]  Noguchi, T., Demura, S., Shimada, S., Kobayashi, H., Yamaji, S. and Yamada, T., “Effect of Sports Club Activities on the Physique and Physical Fitness of Young Japanese Males,” World Journal of Education, 3 (6). 27-32. 2013a.
 
[16]  Noguchi, T., Demura, S. and Takahashi, K., “Relationships between Sit-Ups and Abdominal Flexion Strength Tests and the Thickness of Each Abdominal Muscle,” Advances in Physical Education, 3 (2). 84-88. May. 2013b.
 
[17]  Yamamoto, T., For Practical and Scientific Conditioning Measurement and Assessment, Book House HD, 2004, 18-19.