American Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
ISSN (Print): 2333-4592 ISSN (Online): 2333-4606 Website: Editor-in-chief: Ratko Pavlović
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American Journal of Sports Science and Medicine. 2014, 2(6), 208-211
DOI: 10.12691/ajssm-2-6-1
Open AccessArticle

Characteristics of Static and Dynamic Balance Abilities in Competitive Swimmers

Hiroki Sugiura1, , Shinichi Demura2, Tamotsu Kitabayashi3, Yoshimitsu Shimoyama4, Daisuke Sato4, Ning Xu5 and Yuko Asakura6

1Department of Industrial Business and Engineering, Fukui University of Technology, Fukui, Japan

2Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, Ishikawa, Japan

3Faculty of Science Division, Tokyo University of Science, Tokyo, Japan

4Department of Health and Sports Sciences, Niigata University of Health and Welfare, Nigata, Japan

5Graduate School of Human and Socio-Environmental Studies, Kanazawa University, Ishikawa, Japan

6Human and Socio-Environmental Studies, Kanazawa University, Ishikawa, Japan

Pub. Date: November 11, 2014

Cite this paper:
Hiroki Sugiura, Shinichi Demura, Tamotsu Kitabayashi, Yoshimitsu Shimoyama, Daisuke Sato, Ning Xu and Yuko Asakura. Characteristics of Static and Dynamic Balance Abilities in Competitive Swimmers. American Journal of Sports Science and Medicine. 2014; 2(6):208-211. doi: 10.12691/ajssm-2-6-1


Competitive swimmers may have inferior balance because antigravity strength exertion, which is used to stand, is not often necessary in the water. This study concerns the ability to stand with the manipulating and supporting legs and their laterality by examining 16 male competitive swimmers (age: 19.4±1.0 years, career: 13.7±2.1 years) and 16 male general university students (age: 20.6±1.2 years). Static balance and dynamic balance were evaluated by the center sway of foot pressure and stability on an unstable stool, respectively. The total path length, mean path length, maximal amplitude rectangle, root mean square area, and outline area for the former and the fluctuation index for the latter were selected as evaluation parameters. The results of a two-way ANOVA (group × leg) showed no significant difference in both the group and leg factors for static balance parameters. In contrast, the dynamic balance parameter showed a significant difference in both. Stability on an unstable stool was higher in the swimmer group than in the general student group and in the manipulating leg than in the supporting leg in both groups. In conclusion, dynamic balance while standing with the manipulating or supporting leg is superior in competitive swimmers, unlike static balance assessed by the center sway of foot pressure. In addition, dynamic balance in the manipulating leg is superior to that in the supporting leg for both groups.

static balance dynamic balance competitive swimmers

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