American Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
ISSN (Print): 2333-4592 ISSN (Online): 2333-4606 Website: Editor-in-chief: Ratko Pavlović
Open Access
Journal Browser
American Journal of Sports Science and Medicine. 2013, 1(2), 13-16
DOI: 10.12691/ajssm-1-2-1
Open AccessArticle

Effect of Training on Selected Biochemical Variables of Elite Male Swimmers

Indranil Manna1, and Gulshan Lal Khanna2

1Department of Physiology, Midnapore College, Midnapore, West Bengal, India

2Department of Health Sciences, Manav Rachana International University, Faridabad, India

Pub. Date: April 27, 2013

Cite this paper:
Indranil Manna and Gulshan Lal Khanna. Effect of Training on Selected Biochemical Variables of Elite Male Swimmers. American Journal of Sports Science and Medicine. 2013; 1(2):13-16. doi: 10.12691/ajssm-1-2-1


The aim of the present study was to find out the effect of training on biochemical variables of elite male swimmers. A total of 60 Indian elite male swimmers (age: 17.33 ± 1.47 yrs; height: 173.08 ± 5.80 cm; body mass: 68.11 ± 5.02 kg) who regularly participate in competitive swimming volunteered for this study. A well-designed training program for the swimmers was employed for 12 weeks. The training sessions were divided into 2 phases (a) Preparatory Phase (PP, 8 weeks) and (b) Competitive Phase (CP, 4 weeks). Each phase was further subdivided into macro cycles and micro cycles, and were completed 4 hr/d; 5 d/wk. Selected variables were measured at zero level (baseline data, BD) and at the end of preparatory phase (PP) and competitive phase (CP) of training. A significant increase (P < 0.05) in serum urea, uric acid, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was observed after training. On the other hand, a significant reduction (P < 0.05) in resting and peak blood lactate, hemoglobin, total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), TC/HDL and LDL/HDL were noted after the conclusion of training. The training program was effective for improving selected biochemical parameters for swimmers, and may be employed for monitoring training.

blood lactate hemoglobin uric acid lipid profile training

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Bompa, T.O, Periodization Training. In: Bompa TO (ed). Periodization Training for Sports. Human Kinetics, Champaign, IL, 1999, 147-311.
[2]  Nielsen, M.S. and Weber, R.E. Antagonistic interaction between oxygenation-linked lactate and CO2 binding to human hemoglobin. Comp Bioc Physiol Mol Integr Physiol, 146. 429-434. 2007.
[3]  Suhr, F., Porten, S., Hertrich, T, et al. Intensive exercise induces changes of endothelial nitric oxide synthase pattern in human erythrocytes. Nitric Oxide, 20. 95-103. 2009.
[4]  Urhausen, A. and Kindermann, W. Diagnosis of over training: what tools do we have? Sport Med, 32. 95-102. 2002.
[5]  Heitkamp, H.C., Wegler, S., Brehme, U. and Heinle, H. Effect of an 8-week endurance training program on markers of antioxidant capacity in women. J Sports Med Phys Fit, 48. 113-119. 2008.
[6]  Kargotich, S., Keast, D., Goodman, C., et al. Monitoring 6 weeks of progressive endurance training with plasma glutamine. Int J Sport Med, 28. 211-216. 2007.
[7]  Cox, K.L., Burke, V., Beilin, L.J. and Puddey, I.B. A comparison of the effects of swimming and walking on body weight, fat distribution, lipids, glucose and insulin in older women-the sedentary women Exercise Adherence Trial 2. Metabol, 59. 1562-1573. 2010.
[8]  Kelley, G.A. and Kelley, K.S. Impact of progressive resistance training on lipids and lipoproteins in adults: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Prev Med., 48. 9-19. 2009.
[9]  Altena, T.S., Michaelson, J.L., Ball, S.D., et al. Lipoprotein subfraction changes after continuous or intermittent exercise training. Med Sci Sports Exerc., 38. 367-372. 2006.
[10]  Halverstadt, A., Phares, D.A., Wilund, K.R., et al. Endurance exercise training raises high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and lowers small low-density lipoprotein and very low-density lipoprotein independent of body fat phenotypes in older men and women. Metabol., 56. 444-450. 2007.
[11]  Khanna, G.L. and Manna, I. Study of Physiological Profile of Indian Boxers. J Sports Sci Med, 5. 90-98. 2006.
[12]  Mukharjee, K.L. Medical laboratory technology. A procedure manual for routine diagnostic tests. Vol I – III. Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited, New Delhi, 1997.
[13]  Rao, M. N. Medical Biochemistry. New Age International Publishers. New Delhi, 2006.
[14]  Pedchenko, V.V. and Malakhov, V. N. Enzymatic methods for quantitative determination of total cholesterol in blood serum. Vopr Med Khim, 37. 85-91. 1991.
[15]  Naik, P. Essentials of Biochemistry. Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers. New Delhi, 2012.
[16]  Mc Ardle, W.D., Katch, F.I. and Katch, V.L. Essentials of Exercise Physiology. 3rd ed. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia PA, 2006.
[17]  Wilmore, J.H. and Costill, D.L. Physiology of Sport and Exercise. 3rd ed. Human Kinetics, Champaign IL, 2005.
[18]  Ali, R.S., Koushkie, J.M., Asadmanesh, A. and Salesi, M. Influence of massage, active and passive recovery on swimming performance and blood lactate. J Sports Med Phys Fit, 52. 122-127. 2012.
[19]  Rechichi, C. and Dawson, B. Oral contraceptive cycle phase does not affect 200 m swim time trail performance. J Strength Cond Res., 26. 961-967. 2012.
[20]  Reilly, T. Physiology of Sports. E & F.N. SPON, London,1990.
[21]  Ostojic, S.M. and Ahmetovic, Z. Weekly training volume and hematological status in female top-level athletes of different sports. J Sports Med Phys Fit., 48. 398-403. 2008.
[22]  Radjen, S., Radjen, G., Zivotić-Vanović, M, et al. Effect of iron supplementation on maximal oxygen uptake in female athletes. Vojnosanit Pregl., 68. 130-135. 2011.
[23]  Fujitsuka, S., Koike, Y., Isozaki, A. and Nomura, Y. Effect of 12 weeks of strenuous physical training on hematological changes. Mill Med, 170. 590-594. 2005.
[24]  Neumayr, G., Pfister, R., Hoertnagl, H., et al. Renal function and plasma volume following ultra marathon cycling. Int J Sports Med., 26. 2-8. 2005.
[25]  Sideraviciūte, S., Gailiūniene, A., Vasagurskiene, K. and Vizbaraite, D. The effect of long term swimming programme on body composition, aerobic capacity and blood lipids in 14-19 year aged healthy girls and girls with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Medicina (Kaunas), 42. 661-666. 2006.
[26]  Degoutte, F., Jouanel, P., Begue, R.J., et al. Food restriction, performance, biochemical, psychological, and endocrine changes in judo athletes. Int J Sports Med., 27. 9-18. 2006.