American Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
ISSN (Print): 2333-4592 ISSN (Online): 2333-4606 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/ajssm Editor-in-chief: Ratko Pavlović
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
American Journal of Sports Science and Medicine. 2014, 2(4), 166-170
DOI: 10.12691/ajssm-2-4-9
Open AccessArticle

Acute Changes in Autonomic Nerve Activity during Passive Static Stretching

Takayuki Inami1, , Takuya Shimizu2, Reizo Baba3 and Akemi Nakagaki4

1School of Exercise and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup Drive, Joondalup, WA, Australia

2Graduate School of Health and Sports Sciences, Chukyo University, Tokodachi, Toyota, Aichi, Japan

3Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Aichi Children’s Health and Medical Center, Osakada, Obu, Aichi, Japan

4Reproductive Health Nursing/Midwifery, Graduate School of Nursing, Nagoya City University, Japan

Pub. Date: July 16, 2014

Cite this paper:
Takayuki Inami, Takuya Shimizu, Reizo Baba and Akemi Nakagaki. Acute Changes in Autonomic Nerve Activity during Passive Static Stretching. American Journal of Sports Science and Medicine. 2014; 2(4):166-170. doi: 10.12691/ajssm-2-4-9

Abstract

This study aimed to investigate the acute change of static stretching (SS) on autonomic nerve activity and to clarify the effect of SS on systemic circulation. Twenty healthy young, male volunteers performed a 1-min SS motion of the right triceps surae muscle, repeated five times. The autonomic nerve activity balance was obtained using second derivatives of the photoplethysmogram readings before (pre), during, and after (post) SS. Heart rate and blood pressure (BP) were also measured. The autonomic nerve activity significantly changed to parasympathetic dominance by SS as compared with pre. In addition, for SS, the autonomic nerve activity slowly changed to sympathetic dominance after completion of all sets of stretching, but these value did not return to pre during the 5 minutes after the completion of all sets of stretching, with parasympathetic dominance continuing by 4 minutes after SS. The BP and HR transiently increased during SS and decreased after SS. In addition, HR significantly decreased after completion of all sets of SS.The possibility that the response during SS may differ from the response during active static stretching is shown.

Keywords:
sympathetic nerve activity parasympathetic nerve activity triceps surae muscle static stretching blood pressure heart rate

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

References:

[1]  American College of Sports Medicine Position Stand., “The recommended quantity and quality of exercise for developing and maintaining cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness, and flexibility in healthy adults,” Med Sci Sports Exerc, 30. 975-991. 1998.
 
[2]  Alter, M.J., “Science of flexibility,” 3rd edition, Human Kinetics Pub, Champaign, Illinois, 2004.
 
[3]  Khattab, K., Khattab, A.A., Ortak, J., Richardt, G., Bonnemeier, H., “Iyengar yoga increases cardiac parasympathetic nervous modulation among healty yoga practitioners,” Evid Based Complement Alternat Med, 4. 511-517. 2007.
 
[4]  Lu, W.A., Kuo, C.D., “The effect of Tai Chi Chuan on the autonomic nervous modulation in older persons,” Med Sci Sport Exerc, 35. 1972-1976. 2003.
 
[5]  Saito, T., Hono, T., Miyachi, M., “Effects of stretching on cerebrocortical and autonomic nervous system activities and systemic circulation,” J Phys Med, 12. 2-9. 2001.
 
[6]  Farinatti, P.T., Brandao, C., Soares, P.P., Duarte, A.F., “Acute effects of stretching exercise on the heart rate variability in subjects with low flexibility levels,” J Strength Cond Res, 25. 1579-1585. 2011.
 
[7]  Mueck-Weymann, M., Janshoff, G., Mueck, H., “Stretching increases heart rate variability in healthy athletes complaining about limited muscular flexibility,” ClinAuton Res, 14. 15-18. 2004.
 
[8]  Mohr, K.J., Pink, M.M., Elsner, C., Kvitne, R.S., “Electromyographic investigation of stretching: The effect of warm-up,” Clin J Sport Med, 8. 215-220. 1998.
 
[9]  Avela. J., Kyrolainen, H., Komi, P.V.,“Altered reflex sensitivity after repeated and prolonged passive muscle stretching,”J ApplPhysiol, 86. 1283-1291. 1999.
 
[10]  Cramer, J.T., Housh, T.J., Weir, J.P., Johnson, G.O., Coburn, J.W., Beck, T.W., “The acute effects of static stretching on peak torque, mean power output, electromyography, and mechanomyography,” Eur J ApplPhysiol, 93. 530-539. 2005.
 
[11]  Mizuno, T., Matsumoto, M., Umemura, Y., “Viscoelasticity of the muscle-tendon unit is returned more rapidly than range of motion after stretching,” Scnad J Med Sci Sports, 23. 23-30. 2013.
 
[12]  Morse, C.I., Degans, H., Seynnes, O.R., Maganaris, C.N., Jones, D.A., “The acute effect of stretching on the passive stiffness of the human gastrocnemius muscle tendon unit,” J Phyiol, 586. 97-106. 2008.
 
[13]  Inami, T., Shimizu, T., Miyagawa, H., Inoue, M., Nakagawa, T., Takayanagi, F. Niwa, S.,“Effect of two passive stretching methods for triceps surae on dorsiflexion of ankle joint,” J Phys Fitness Sports Med, 59. 549-554. 2010.
 
[14]  Kawakami, Y., Oda, T., Kurihara, T., Chino, K., Nagayoshi, T., Kanehara, H., Fukunaga, T., Kuno, S., “Musculoskeletal factors influencing ankle joint range of motion in the middle-aged and elderly individuals,” Jpn J Phys Fitness Sports Med, 52. 149-156. 2003.
 
[15]  Yamaguchi, K., Sasabe, T., Tajima, S., Watanebe, Y., “The evaluation of fatigue by acceleration plethysmogram,” J ClinExp Med, 22. 646-653. 1009.
 
[16]  Task force of the European Society of Cardiology and the North American Society of Pacing and Electrophysiology, Heart rate variability. Standards of measurement, physiological interpretation, and clinical use. Circulation. 93. 1043-1065. 1996.
 
[17]  Yoshida, Y., Yokoyama, K., Takada, H., Iwase, S.,“Heart rate variability before fainting under the graded local of artificial gravity,” AutonNervSyst,43. 453-459. 2006.
 
[18]  Matsumoto, T., Matsunaga, A., Hara, M., Saito, M., Yonezawa, R., Ishii, A., Kutsuna, T., Yamamoto, K., Masuda, T., “Effect of the breathing mode characterized by prolonged expiration on respiratory and cardiovascular responses and autonomic nervous activity during the exercise,” Jpn J Phys Fit Sport Med, 57. 315-326. 2008.
 
[19]  Murata, J., Matsukawa, K., “Cardiac vagal and sympathetic efferent discharge are differentially modified by stretch of skeletal muscle,” Am J Phyiol Heart Circ, 280. H237-H245. 2001.
 
[20]  Cui, J., Blaha, C., Moradkhan, R., Gray, K.S., Sinoway, L. I., “Muscle sympathetic nerve activity responses to dynamic passive muscle stretch in humans,” J Physiol, 576. 625-634. 2006.
 
[21]  Drew, R.C., Bell, M.P.D., White, M.J., “Modulation of spontaneous baroreflex control of heart rate and indexes of vagal tone by passive calf muscle stretch during graded metaboreflex activation in humans,” J ApplPhysiol, 104. 716-723. 2008.
 
[22]  Fisher, J.P., Bell, M.P.D., White, M.J., “Cardiovascular responses to human calf muscle stretch during varying levels of muscle metaboreflex activation,” ExpPhysiol, 90. 773-781. 2005.
 
[23]  Euler, C.V., “On the role of proprioceptors in perception and execution of motor acts with special reference to breathing,” In: PengellyLD, Rebuch AS, Campbell EJM eds, Loaded breathing, Longman Canada, 139-154. 1973.