American Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
ISSN (Print): 2333-4592 ISSN (Online): 2333-4606 Website: Editor-in-chief: Ratko Pavlović
Open Access
Journal Browser
American Journal of Sports Science and Medicine. 2021, 9(1), 1-3
DOI: 10.12691/ajssm-9-1-1
Open AccessArticle

Lateral Dominance Involving Hand Grip Strength among Soft Tennis Players, Swimmers, and General People

Hiroki Aoki1, , Shinichi Demura2, Kenji Takahashi3 and Hidenori Shinohara4

1National Institute of Technology, Fukui College, Fukui, Japan

2Kanazawa University, Ishikawa, Japan

3Nagasaki International University, Nagasaki, Japan

4Nippon Sport Science University, Tokyo, Japan

Pub. Date: January 18, 2021

Cite this paper:
Hiroki Aoki, Shinichi Demura, Kenji Takahashi and Hidenori Shinohara. Lateral Dominance Involving Hand Grip Strength among Soft Tennis Players, Swimmers, and General People. American Journal of Sports Science and Medicine. 2021; 9(1):1-3. doi: 10.12691/ajssm-9-1-1


Tennis players frequently use their dominant arm in training and games; hence, the difference between their left and right hand grip strength may be significant. This study aimed to examine lateral dominance in terms of hand grip strength among soft tennis players, swimmers, and general people. The subjects included 65 soft tennis players, 30 competitive swimmers, and 45 regular people, all of whom were male university students. The three groups did not show significant differences in mean age. The hand grip strength of their dominant and nondominant hands was measured twice. The results of the two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) (groups × dominant/nondominant hands) showed a significant interaction. Multiple-comparison tests showed that soft tennis players have stronger dominant-hand grip than swimmers and regular people. In addition, the hand grip strength was higher in the dominant hand than in the nondominant hand in all groups. In addition, the one-way ANOVA showed a significantly larger hand grip strength ratio (dominant hand/nondominant hand) in soft tennis players than in swimmers and regular people. In conclusion, soft tennis players have stronger dominant-hand grip than swimmers and regular people as well as a higher marked lateral dominance.

soft tennis players hand grip strength dominant arm

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Geshwind N, Behan p. (1982). Left- handedness: association with immune disease, migraine, and developmental learning disorder. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 79: 5097-5100.
[2]  Gur R.C, Turesky BI, Matui M., Yan M., Bilker W, Hughett P, and Gur RE. (1999). Sex difference in brain gray and white matter in healthy young adults: correlations with cognitive performance. The Journal of Neuroscience 19: 4065-4072.
[3]  Dolocos F, Rice HJ, Gabeza R. (2002). Hemispheric asymmetry and aging: right hemisphere decline or asymmetry reduction. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews: 26: 819-825.
[4]  Ekdahl C, Jarnlo GB, Andersson SI. (1989). Standing balance in healthy subjects. Evaluation of a quantitative test battery on a force platform. Scand. J Rehabil. Med. 21(4): 187-95.
[5]  Roy EA, Bryden P, Gavill S. (2003). Hand differences in pegboard performance through development. Brain and Cognition 53: 315-317.
[6]  Noguchi T, Demura S, Nagasawa Y, Uchiyama M. (2006). Practice effect and its difference of the pursuit rotor test by the dominant and non-dominant hands. The Journal of Physiological Anthropology and Applied Human Science 102(1): 265-74.
[7]  Strizak AM., Gleim G.W, Sapega A, Nichoias JA. (1983). Hand and forearm strength and its relation to tennis. The American Journal of Sports Medicine 11: 234-239.
[8]  Hasegawa S, Funatsu K. (2013). Laterality of muscle thickness in athletes who perform throwing and hitting motions. Jpn J Phys Fitness Sports Med, 62(3): 227-235.
[9]  Miura A, Tomosue R, Ikegawa S, Hirano Y, Kanehisa H, Fukunaga T. (1994). Laterality of upper arm composition and strength of elbow joint for oarsmen, tennis players and baseballers. Journal of Training Science for Exercise and Sport 6(2): 95-100.
[10]  Girard, O., Micallef, J.P., & Millet, G.P. (2005). Lower-limb activity during the power serve in tennis: effects of performance level. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 37: 1021-1029.
[11]  Raya, M.A., Gailey, R.S., Gaunaurd, I.A., Jayne, D.M., Campbell, S.M., Gagne, E., Manrique, P.G., Muller, D.G., & Tucker, C. (2013). Comparison of three agility tests with male servicemembers: Edgren Side Step Test, T-Test, and Illinois Agility Test. J Rehabil Res Dev, 50: 951-960.
[12]  Meckel, Y., Hophy, A., Dunsky, A., & Eliakim, A. (2015). Relationship between physical Characteristics and ranking of young tennis players. Central European Journal of Sport Sciences and Medicine, 10: 5-12.
[13]  Aoki H, Demura S, Nakada M, Kitabayashi T. (2018). Characteristics of muscle power and agility in top-level junior soft tennis players. World Journal of Education, 8(5): 211-216.
[14]  Demura S, Sato S, and Nagasawa Y. Re-examination of useful items for determining hand dominance. Gazzetta Medica Italiana Archivio per le Scienze Mediche. 2009: 168: 169-177.
[15]  Aoki H, Demura S, Yamaji S, Omoya M. (2018). Accuracy of Force Exertion in Each Demanded Value Based on Subjective Information and Laterality. American Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 6(1): 28-32.
[16]  Koya N. (2009). Grading Characteristics of Power in Tennis Players Measuring Grip Strength and Medicine-ball Throw. Doshisha Journal of Health & Sports Science, 1: 45-51.
[17]  Akima H, Takahashi H, Kuno S, Masuda K, Masuda T, Shimojoh H, Anno I, Itai Y, and Katuta S. (1999). Early phase adaptations of muscle use and strength to isokinetic training. Med Sci Sports Science 31: 588-594.
[18]  Staron R.S, Leonaddi M.J, Karapondo D L, Malicky E S, Falken J E, Hagerman F C, Hikida R S. (1991). Strength and skeletal muscle adaptations in heavy-resistance-trained women after detraining and retraining. J Appl Physiol 70: 631-640.