American Journal of Rural Development
ISSN (Print): 2333-4762 ISSN (Online): 2333-4770 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/ajrd Editor-in-chief: Chi-Ming Lai
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
American Journal of Rural Development. 2016, 4(4), 85-92
DOI: 10.12691/ajrd-4-4-2
Open AccessArticle

Towards Community Resilience, Focus on a Rural Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene Project in Swaziland

Daniel. H. Mlenga1,

1Disaster Management Training and Education Centre for Africa, Natural and Agricultural Sciences, University of the Free State, South Africa, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein 9300, South Africa

Pub. Date: September 09, 2016

Cite this paper:
Daniel. H. Mlenga. Towards Community Resilience, Focus on a Rural Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene Project in Swaziland. American Journal of Rural Development. 2016; 4(4):85-92. doi: 10.12691/ajrd-4-4-2

Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to assess the effectiveness of different approaches of water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) in reducing and mitigating against potential risk of disaster and promoting community resilience. Lack of access to safe water supply, inadequate sanitation, and poor hygiene practices are among the leading causes of illness, death and malnutrition in developing countries. Using a resilience conceptual framework in the design of research, pre and post Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices (KAP) surveys were administered to 450 randomly selected beneficiaries of a Non-Governmental Organization (NGO) supported WASH program in six constituencies that are prone to drought and water borne diseases. Guided direct observation was used to assess the status WASH infrastructure at project inception and completion. Results of the study indicated increases in the percentage of target population with access to safe water, water usage in litres per person and improvement in sanitation and hygiene practices. They were improvements in the community participation, learning and capacity in use and management of WASH infrastructure meaning that effective promotion of WASH during relief, recovery and development programming to build infrastructure and human capacity prepares communities to face future WASH related hazards.

Keywords:
resilience water supply sanitation and hygiene DRR

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

References:

[1]  Barton, A. (2015). Water in crisis – Swaziland. Retrieved from: https://thewaterproject.org/water-in-crisis-swaziland.
 
[2]  Chiputwa, B., Langyintuo, A. S., and Wall, P, (2011). “Adoption of conservation agriculture technologies by smallholder farmers in the Shamva District of Zimbabwe”, A Tobit application”, in paper accepted for the 2011 meeting of the Southern Agricultural Economics Association (SAEA), Texas, USA, (pp. 5-8).
 
[3]  Evans, B. (2005). “Securing sanitation”--The compelling case to address the crisis, in report by the Stockholm International Water Institute (SIWI) to the Norwegian Government. Stockholm, Sweden.
 
[4]  Frankenberger, T., Mueller, M., Spangler, T., and Alexander, S., (2013). “Community resilience: conceptual framework and measurement feed the future learning agenda”, Retrieved from: https://agrilinks.org/sites/default/files/resource/files/FTF%20Learning_Agenda_Community_Resilience_ Oct%202013.pdf (accessed 16 August 2015).
 
[5]  Government of Swaziland. (2016). Update from the minister on the drought and current water scarcity. Reprieved from http://www.gov.sz/drought%20update.pdf. (accessed 14 January 2016).
 
[6]  Hinrichsen, D. and Tacio, H. (2002). “The coming freshwater crisis is already here. Finding the Source”. The Linkages between Population and Water, Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, Washington, DC, ESCP Publication, Spring.
 
[7]  Krishnan, S., Twigg, J and Johnson, C. (2013). “Building community resilience through water, sanitation, and hygiene programmes during post disaster recovery”. Sustainable post-disaster reconstruction-From recovery to risk reduction paper presented at the i-Rec Conference 2013, Retrieved from: http://www.grif.umontreal.ca/i-Rec2013/65-76_Krishnan.pdf (accessed 18 July 2015).
 
[8]  Manyena, B (2009). Disaster resilience in development and humanitarian interventions (Doctoral dissertation, Northumbria University).
 
[9]  McConnan, I. (1998). Humanitarian charter and minimum standards in disaster response, The Sphere Project.
 
[10]  Mitchell, T. and Harris, K. (2012). “Resilience: A risk management approach”. ODI Background Note. Overseas Development Institute: London 2012.
 
[11]  Mlenga, D.H. and Baraki, Y.A. (2016). “Community led total sanitation for community based disaster risk reduction’ A case for non-input humanitarian relief, Jàmbá: Journal of Disaster Risk Studies 8(2), Art. #183, 8 pages.
 
[12]  Prüss A, Havelaar A. (2001). “The Global Burden of Disease study and applications in water, sanitation and hygiene”’ in Fewtrell L, Bartram J, editors. Water Quality: Guidelines, Standards and Health. Risk assessment and management for water-related infectious disease. IWA Publishing, London. pp. 43-59.
 
[13]  Siembieda, W., Hayashi, H., and Boswell, M., (2010). “Toward an enhanced concept of disaster resilience” a commentary on behalf of the editorial committee; Journal Disaster Resilience 5(5), 487-493.
 
[14]  Swaziland Annual Vulnerability Assessment Committee. (2013). Swaziland National Vulnerability Assessment Report. Mbabane: Government of the Kingdom of Swaziland.
 
[15]  United Nation (2015a). Sustainable Development Goals. 17 Goals to Transform Our World Retrieved from: http://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/water-and-sanitation/ (accessed 27 January 2016).
 
[16]  United Nation (2015b). United Nations, General Assembly, Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030. Retrieved from: www.un.org (accessed 23 June 2015).
 
[17]  United Nation Development Programme (2007). The Millennium Development Goals Report. Retrieved from: http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/pdf/mdg2007.pdf. (accessed 6 May 2015).
 
[18]  United Nations Children’s Fund (2009). UNICEF in action. Water, sanitation and hygiene. Retrieved from: http://files.givewell.org/files/ExternalWebsites/Unicef/UNICEF-WatSan.pdf. (accessed 14 August 2015).
 
[19]  United Nations Children’s Fund/ World Health Organisation (2012). Progress on drinking water and sanitation: 2012 update. Retrieved from: WHO. http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/publications/2012/jmp_report/en/ (accessed 14 June 2015).
 
[20]  United Nations Office for Disaster Reduction (2005). Hyogo framework for Action 2005-2015: building the Resilience of Nations and Communities to Disasters. World Conference on Disaster Reduction. Kobe, Hyogo. Japan, Retrieved from: http://www.unisdr.org/wcdr (accessed 27 June 2015).
 
[21]  United Nations Office for Disaster Reduction (2009). UNISDR Terminology on Disaster Risk Reduction. Retrieved from: Geneva, May 2009. http://www.unisdr.org/we/inform/terminology. (accessed 12 January 2016).
 
[22]  United Nations Office for Disaster Reduction (2015). Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030. http://www.preventionweb.net/files/43291_sendaiframeworkfordrren.pdf. (accessed 16 January 2016).
 
[23]  United States Agency for International Development (2012). USAID/OFDA Proposal Guidelines. WASH Indicators. Hygiene Promotion Indicators., Retrieved from: https://www.usaid.gov/sites/default/files/documents/1866/indicator_matrix.pdf. (accessed 14 June 2012).
 
[24]  Vella, j, (2012). “Food and Water Security in Swaziland: Potential for Crises?” Strategic Analysis Paper. Future Directions international. Global Food and Water Crises Research Programme Retrieved from: http://futuredirections.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2012/06/FDI_Strategic_Analysis_Paper_-_14_June_2012.pdf. (accessed 12 January 2016).
 
[25]  Water Aid (2014). “From promise to reality”: The urgent need for Southern African leaders to deliver their water, sanitation and hygiene commitments. Retrieved from: http://www.wateraid.org/~/media/Publications/From-promise-to-reality-English.pdf (accessed 19 July 2015).
 
[26]  World Health Organization (2011). “Water, sanitation and hygiene interventions and the prevention of diarrhoea”. Biological, behavioural and contextual rationale. Retrieved from: http://www.who.int/elena/titles/bbc/wsh_diarrhoea/en/ (accessed 19 July 2015).