American Journal of Rural Development
ISSN (Print): 2333-4762 ISSN (Online): 2333-4770 Website: Editor-in-chief: Chi-Ming Lai
Open Access
Journal Browser
American Journal of Rural Development. 2015, 3(1), 5-9
DOI: 10.12691/ajrd-3-1-2
Open AccessArticle

Military Tactics as Cross-Cultural Public Relations Gesture: Chinese Military Tactics in Tibet as Possible Indicator of Paralleled Chinese Actions Outside of China

Jim Schnell1,

1Ohio Dominican University

Pub. Date: March 23, 2015

Cite this paper:
Jim Schnell. Military Tactics as Cross-Cultural Public Relations Gesture: Chinese Military Tactics in Tibet as Possible Indicator of Paralleled Chinese Actions Outside of China. American Journal of Rural Development. 2015; 3(1):5-9. doi: 10.12691/ajrd-3-1-2


This report addresses how the military actions of China exemplify public relations gestures of intention within the realm of armed conflict. In doing so Chinese military tactics used in Tibet are interpreted as gestures of intent that can serve as foundation for speculating on possible paralleled Chinese actions outside of China. The study of cross-cultural relations encompasses a wide range of perspectives and contexts. Cross-cultural relations can occur on multiple levels, from subtle nonverbal expressions within interpersonal encounters to bold military attacks that play out in the international arena. The findings conveyed are presented in a developmental progression whereby the preceding section(s) serve as context and foundation for what is conveyed.

Tibet Chinese military tactics cross-cultural gesture public relations

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Laird, Thomas. The Story of Tibet: Conversations with the Dalai Lama. New York: Grove Press, 2006, pp. 301-307.
[2]  “Peoples Liberation Army Invasion of Tibet,” January 17, 2006.
[3]  Pommaret, Fracoise. Tibet: A Wounded Civilization. London: Harry N. Abrams, 2008, p. 105.
[4]  Hanrahan, Claire. Tibet: Opposing Viewpoints. Farmington Hills, Michigan: Green haven Press, 2009, p. 26.
[5]  Heinrichs, Ann. Tibet: Enchantment of the World. Hong Kong: Grolier Press, 2006, p. 116.
[6]  Levy, Patricia & Don Bosco. Cultures of the World: Tibet. New York: Benchmark, 2007, p. 40-41.
[7]  Knaus, Robert. Orphans of the Cold War: America and the Tibetan Struggle for Survival. New York: Public Affairs, 2009, p. 134.
[8]  “Why Tibet?” Tibet Online, 2008.
[9]  Tibet: The Facts, A Report Prepared by the Scientific Buddhist Association for the United Nations Commission on Human Rights, 297, Dharamsala: Tibetan Young Buddhist Association, 2010.
[10]  Tao, Shelan, “Military Expert: Improving the Strategic Ability to Safeguard National Interests Is a Pressing Task for China’s Military at Present,” Beijing Zhongguo Xinwen She, May 9, 2006. Reported in FBIS, May 18, 2006.
[11]  Ten Dead in Violent Protests in Tibet Capital” USA Today. 2008-03-28.
[12]  “As Tibet Erupted, China Security Forces Wavered,” March 25, 2008.
[13]  Sullivan, Lawrence. China Since Tiananmen: Political, Economic and Social Conflicts. London: East Gate Book, 2005, p. 253.
[14]  “Crush Tibet Independence Forces’ Conspiracy, People’s Daily Urges,” People’s Daily Online. 2008-3-22.
[15]  “HK Journalists Thrown Out of Tibet” The Standard. 18 March 2008.
[16]  “Did China Stage Tibetan ‘Attack’ On Wheelchair-Bound Woman?” Information Liberation (April 15, 2008).
[17]  Powers, John. History as Propaganda: Tibetan Exiles Versus the People’s Republic of China. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007, p. viii.
[18]  Rowley, John. “Tibet in the Twentieth Century,” Gandhi Way, Issue Nos. 65-66, 2000.
[19]  Lixiong, Wang. “Reflections on Tibet,” New Left Review, Vol. 14 (March-April 2012).
[20]  Information Office of the State Council of the People’s Republic of China, December 2006, Beijing. The full text of China’s National Defense in 2006 is available at, December 29, 2006.
[21]  Wang, Peiyu & Juwei Fan, “When Watching the All-Army Exhibition on New Type Logistic Armaments, Liao Xilong Calls for Efforts to Upgrade the Technological Level and Construction Quality of Logistics Armaments,” Beijing Jiefangjun Bao, May 9, 2006, p. 1.
[22]  Zheng, Zhidong, “Thoughts on Improving Preparations for People’s War Under Informationized Conditions,” Beijing Guofang, April 2009, p. 24.
[23]  Ibid., p. 19.
[24]  “The People’s Liberation Army,” Government White Paper, October, 2007
[25]  Ibid.
[26]  Za Khan. “Weapons and Tactics,” Defense Journal (July, 2011).
[27]  Ibid.
[28]  Ibid.
[29]  Ibid.
[30]  Kamphausen, Roy and Andrew Scobell. Right-Sizing the People’s Liberation Army: Exploring the Contours of China’s Military. Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania: Army War College, 2007, p. 271.