American Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
ISSN (Print): 2327-6711 ISSN (Online): 2327-672X Website: Editor-in-chief: Srinivas NAMMI
Open Access
Journal Browser
American Journal of Pharmacological Sciences. 2017, 5(2), 40-48
DOI: 10.12691/ajps-5-2-4
Open AccessArticle

Epidemiology and Predictors of Drug Therapy Problems among Type 2 Diabetic Patients at Wolaita Soddo University Teaching Hospital, Southern Ethiopia

Hailu Chare Koyra1, , Seble Bancha Tuka2 and Efrata Girma Tufa3

1Department of Pharmacy, School of Medicine, Wolaita Soddo University, Soddo, Ethiopia

2Department of Biology, College of natural and computational sciences, Kotebe Meteropolitan University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

3Department of Medical Laboratory, College of Health Sciences and Medicine, Wolaita Soddo University, Soddo, Ethiopia

Pub. Date: July 25, 2017

Cite this paper:
Hailu Chare Koyra, Seble Bancha Tuka and Efrata Girma Tufa. Epidemiology and Predictors of Drug Therapy Problems among Type 2 Diabetic Patients at Wolaita Soddo University Teaching Hospital, Southern Ethiopia. American Journal of Pharmacological Sciences. 2017; 5(2):40-48. doi: 10.12691/ajps-5-2-4


Background: Diabetic patients have a significant number of co-morbidities which increases number of medications and complexity of treatment that can finally result in drug therapy problems among these populations. Despite its serious negative impact on health outcomes, there is lack of research evidence on drug therapy problem in the country. Therefore, current study aims to assess epidemiology and predictors of drug therapy problems among adult type 2 diabetic patients at Wolaita Soddo University teaching hospital. Method: Institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted from January to March, 2015, among 243 adult type2 diabetes patients attending their ambulatory care in Wolaita University teaching hospital. Medical record reviews and interviewer-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Drug therapy problems were identified by using Cipolle’s method which was adapted to diabetic patients and further refined by panel of experts. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to identify predictors of drug therapy problems. Results: Out of 243 adult type 2 diabetic patients included, the prevalence of drug therapy problems was 83.1%. Need additional drug, 137(56.37%) and non-compliance 126(51.9%) were the most common types of drug therapy problems. Age ≥ 65 (AOR=9.079; 95% CI: 2.213, 37.241), comorbidity (AOR=7.004; 95% CI: 1.285, 18.194), polypharmacy (AOR =3.311; 95% CI: 1.366, 30.329), and history of hospitalization (AOR=0.403; 95%CI: 0.176, 0.925) were independent predictors of the drug therapy problems. Conclusion: the study showed that drug related problems especially need additional drug or unmet conditions and non-compliance were major challenges for optimal management of type 2 diabetes in the hospital. Hence, the hospital should optimize utilization of statins and antiplatelet for cardiovascular prevention with due emphasis to increase medication adherence of the diabetic patients.

drug therapy diabetes Wolaita Soddo Ethiopia

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


Figure of 2


[1]  Cipolle J, Strand LM MP. Pharmaceutical care practices: The clinician’s Guide, 2nd ed. 2004.
[2]  Marley S, Charles D, Hepler L. Opportunities and Responsibilities in Pharmaceutical Care. 1990.
[3]  American Diabetes Association. Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care 2014; 37(Suppl. 1):S81-S90.
[4]  Diabetes atlas Sixth edition. IDF, 2013.
[5]  Tadele A, T.B., Endalew H, et al, Self-care practice and its predictors among adults with diabetes mellitus on follow up at Nekemte hospital diabetic clinic, west Ethiopia. World Journal of Medicine and Medical Science, 2014. 2 (3): p. 1-16.
[6]  Mbanya J, M.A., Sobngwi E, Diabetes in sub-Saharan Africa. The Lancet, 2010. 375: p. 2254-66.
[7]  Feleke Y, E.F., Cost of Hospitalization of Diabetic patients admitted at Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Ethiop med J, 2007. 450(3): p. 275-82.
[8]  Yemane Y, B.T., Asaminew B, et al, Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Jimma Town, Southwest Ethiopia. Ethiopia JHealth science, 2007. 17(2).
[9]  FMHACA. Food, Medicine and Healthcare Administration and Control Authority of Ethiopia, Standard Treatment Guidelines for General Hospital Diseases. 2014.
[10]  American Diabetes Association. Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes. 2015. p. 14-80.
[11]  Anderson PO. Handbook of Clinical Drug Data. 10th ed. McGraw-Hill Medical; 2002.
[12]  Baxter K. Stockley’s Drug Interactions. 2009.
[13]  Morisky DE, Green LW, Levine DM. Concurrent and predictive validity of a self-reported measure of medication adherence. Med Care. 1986; 24:67-74.
[14]  WSU. Wolaita Soddo University Teaching Hospital Annual report; 2014.
[15]  Huri HZ, Ling LC. Drug-related problems in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with dyslipidaemias. BMC Public Health 2013; 13:1192.
[16]  Haugbolle LS, Sorensen EW. Drug-related problems in patients with angina pectoris, type 2 diabetes and asthma--interviewing patients at home. Pharm World Sci. 2006; 28(4): 239-47.
[17]  Cipolle R, Marley S, Linda M. Co-morbidities and Drug Therapy Problems in Patients with Diabetes. Medicat Manag Syst. 2013.
[18]  Ogbonna B. Ezenduka C. Opara C. Ahara L. Drug Therapy Problems in Patients with Type-2 Diabetes in a Tertiary Hospital in Nigeria. International journal of innovative research & development. 2014; 3(1); 494-502.
[19]  Van Roozendaal BW, Krass I; Development of an evidence-based checklist for the detection of drug related problems in type 2 diabetes. Pharm World Sci. 2009 Oct; 31(5):580-95.
[20]  Eichenberger PM, Haschke M, Lampert ML, Hershberger KE. Drug-related problems in diabetes and transplant patients: an observational study. Int J Clin Pharm. 2011.
[21]  Aburuz SM, Bulatova NR. Comprehensive assessment of treatment related problems in hospitalized medicine patients in Jordan. 2011; 33: 501-11.
[22]  Tigabu BM, Daba D, Habte B. Drug-related problems among medical ward patients in Jimma University specialized hospital, Southwest Ethiopia. J Res Pharm Pract. 2014 Jan; 3(1):1-5.
[23]  Huri HZ, Wee HF. Drug related problems in type 2 diabetes patients with hypertension: a cross-sectional retrospective study. BMC Endocrine Disorders; 2013; 13(1):1.
[24]  Hajjar ER, Cafiero AC, Hanlon JT. Polypharmacy in elderly patients. Am J Geriatr Pharmacother. 2007 Dec;5(4):345-51.
[25]  Deepa G, Andrew S, Linda M et al. Drug therapy problems found in ambulatory patient populations in Minnesota and South Australia. 2007; 647-54.
[26]  Ahmad A, Mast MR, Hugten burg JG. Identification of drug-related problems of elderly patients discharged from hospital. 2014; 155-65.