American Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
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American Journal of Pharmacological Sciences. 2014, 2(5), 93-99
DOI: 10.12691/ajps-2-5-4
Open AccessArticle

Impact of Co-administered Lopinavir/Ritonavir and Sulfamethoxazole/Trimethoprim on Reproductive Indices of Male Albino Rats

Deo Oputiri1 and Adikwu Elias2,

1Department of Pharm Tech, College of Health Technology, Otuogidi, Ogbia, L. G. A., Bayelsa State

2Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, University of Port Harcourt, Choba, Rivers State, Nigeria

Pub. Date: November 07, 2014

Cite this paper:
Deo Oputiri and Adikwu Elias. Impact of Co-administered Lopinavir/Ritonavir and Sulfamethoxazole/Trimethoprim on Reproductive Indices of Male Albino Rats. American Journal of Pharmacological Sciences. 2014; 2(5):93-99. doi: 10.12691/ajps-2-5-4


Antiretroviral drugs containing Lopinavir/ ritonavir (LPV/r) are usually co-administered with sulfamethoxazole / trimethoprim (SMX/TMP) in the management of HIV/AIDS and co infections. The concurrent use of these drugs may place more adverse burden on testicular function because reports have associated these drugs individually with decreased testicular function. This study therefore evaluated the effects of the co-administration of SMX/TMP + LPV/r on reproductive indices of male albino rats. Eighty (80) adult male rats which were divided into five (5) groups A-E were used in this study. Animals in group A which served as the control were treated with 1% ethanol while animals in groups B-E were treated orally with SMX/TMP, (22.4/4.6mg/kg), LPV/r (22.8/5.8mg/kg) and combined doses of SMX/TMP + LPV/r for 2-8 weeks respectively. Animals were sacrificed at the end of treatment, testes were collected and weighed. Sperm count, sperm motility, and morphology were evaluated. Testicular levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), super oxide dismutase (SOD) and histopathological changes were also analyzed. Single doses of LPV/r and SMX/TMP produced significant time dependent decrease in total sperm count and sperm motility, with increase in abnormal sperm morphology. Treatment with single doses of these agents time dependently increased testicular MDA, decreased SOD level and induced abnormal testicular histopathological changes. No significant synergistic effects were observed in all evaluated parameters when these agents were co-administered. Conclusion: Due to lack of significant synergistic effects on all evaluated parameters with the co-administration of these agents, the concurrent use of these agents in the management of HIV and co- infections may not have any deleterious effect on male reproductive function.

testis toxicity sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim lopinavir/ritonavir rats

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