American Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
ISSN (Print): 2327-6711 ISSN (Online): 2327-672X Website: Editor-in-chief: Srinivas NAMMI
Open Access
Journal Browser
American Journal of Pharmacological Sciences. 2014, 2(1), 27-31
DOI: 10.12691/ajps-2-1-6
Open AccessArticle

A Study on Antiurolithiatic Activity of Melia Azadirachta L. Aqueous Extract in Rats

Nagiat T Hwisa1, Fathi H Assaleh1, Sumalatha Gindi2, Fauzi El Melad1, Babu Rao Chandu1, 3, and Prakash Katakam1, 3

1Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Zawia, Az Zawiyah, Libya

2Department of Pharmacology, Hindu College of Pharmacy, Guntur, India

3Priyadarshini Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Guntur, India

Pub. Date: February 08, 2014

Cite this paper:
Nagiat T Hwisa, Fathi H Assaleh, Sumalatha Gindi, Fauzi El Melad, Babu Rao Chandu and Prakash Katakam. A Study on Antiurolithiatic Activity of Melia Azadirachta L. Aqueous Extract in Rats. American Journal of Pharmacological Sciences. 2014; 2(1):27-31. doi: 10.12691/ajps-2-1-6


The objective was to investigate the antiurolithiatic activity of aqueous plant extract of Melia azadirachta using the zinc disc implantation model in male Wistar albino rats. A significant increase in urinary excretion of calcium, oxalate, magnesium and phosphate was observed after four weeks of implantation of zinc discs. After treatment with aqueous extract of Melia azadirachta caused a significant reduction (p < 0.001) in stone weight and urinary excretion of electrolytes in both the preventive and curative group of animals as compared to those of control groups. This explains the effect of the aqueous extract of Melia azadirachta in preventing urolithiasis (59%) and dissolving the pre-formed magnesium ammonium phosphate type of stones (46%). The possible mechanism could be due to the urinary stone-formation, lowering, antioxidant, diuretic, nephroprotective constituents present in Melia azadirachta. These results suggest the usefulness of aqueous plant extract of Melia azadirachta as an antiurolithiatic agent.

Melia azadirachta antiurolithiatic activity aqueous extract rats

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Anderson, R.A, “A complementary approach to urolithiasis prevention,” World Journal of Urology, 20. 294-301. 2002.
[2]  Trivedi, R.C., Reber, L., Berta, E. and Stong, L, “New enzymatic method for serum uric acid at 500 nm,” Clinical Chemistry, 24 (11). 1908-1911. Dec. 1978.
[3]  Tiselius, H.G., Vernhorst, E., Carlström, K., and Larsson, L, “Urinary oxalate excretion to during anti-androgenic therapy,” Investigative Urology, 18 (2). 110-111. Sep. 1980.
[4]  Anderson R.A, “A complementary approach to urolithiasis prevention,” World Journal of Urology, 20 (5). 294-301. Oct. 2002.
[5]  Leusmann, D.B., Blaschke, R., and Schmandt, W, “Results of 5035 stone analyses: a contribution to epidemiology of urinary stone disease,” Scandinavian Journal of Urology, 24 (3). 205-210. 1990.
[6]  Lorentz, K, “Improved determination of serum calcium with ortho cresolphthalein complexone,” Clinica Chimica Acta, 126 (3). 327-334. Dec. 1982.
[7]  Gindi, S., Chandu, B.R., Dasari, V., and Bharga, B.R.G, “Exploitation of antiurolithiatic activity of Macrotyloma uniflorum on rats,” Pharmabuzz, 3. 12-14. Dec 2008.
[8]  Gindi, S., Methra, T., Chandu, B.R., Boyina, R., and Dasari, V, “Antiurolithiatic and invitro anti-oxidant activity of leaves of Ageratum conyzoides in rat,” World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2 (2). 636-649. Mar 2013.
[9]  Kokate, C., Purohit, A.P., and Gokhale, S.B, Pharmacognosy, Nirali Prakashan, New Delhi, 2010, 10. 28-10. 29.
[10]  Negi, P.S., Jayaprakasha, G.K., and Jena, B.S, “Distribution and introduction cultivation state of Azadirachta indica,” Food Chemistry, 80. 293-297. Jan. 2002.
[11]  Ali, A, Textbook of Pharmacognosy, Publication and Information Directorate, New Delhi, 1993, 381-384.
[12]  Prieto, P., Pineda, M., and Aguilar, M, “Activity of a standardized neem (Azadirachta Indica) seed extract on the rodent malaria parasite plasmodium berghei,” Analytical Biochemistry, 269. 337-341. May. 1999.
[13]  Britto, A.J., and Sheeba, D.H, “Azadiracta indica juss – a potential antimicrobial agent,” International Journal of Applied Biological and Pharmaceutical Technology, 2 (3). 4550-4557. Jul. 2011.
[14]  Eshrat, H., and Ali, M, “Using traditional Indian anti-diabetic plant Azadirachta Indica,” Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry, 17. 115-123. Jul. 2002.
[15]  Rabiu, H., and Subhasish, M, “Investigation of in-vitro anthelmintic ativity of Azadirachta indica leaves,” International Journal of Drug Development Research, 3 (4). 94-99. Oct. 2011.
[16]  Vermulen, C.W, Cancer and Harmones, essays in experimental biology, Universities of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1968, 255.
[17]  Barbasa, C., Garciaa, A., Saavedraa, L., and Muros, M, “Urinary analysis of nephrolithiasis markers,” Journal of Chromatography B, 781. 433-455. Dec. 2002.
[18]  Bauer, J.D, Clinical laboratory methods, B1 Publications Ltd., New Delhi, 1990, 511-512.
[19]  Singh, P.K., Patil, C.R., Harlalka, G.V., and Gaud, N.P, “Zinc disc implantation model of urinary bladder calculi and humane endpoints,” Laboratory Animals, 44 (3). 226-230. Jul. 2010.
[20]  Ecobichon, D.J, The basis of toxicology testing, CRC Press, New York, 1997, 43-86.
[21]  Vyas, N., and Argal, A, “Antiurolithiatic Activity of Extract and Oleanolic Acid Isolated from the Roots of Lantana camara on Zinc Disc Implantation Induced Urolithiasis,” ISRN Pharmacology, vol. 2013, Article ID 951795, 5 pages, 2013.
[22]  Henry, J.R., Cannan, D.C., and Winkllman, J.W, Clinical chemistry principle and techniques, Harper and Row, NewYork, 1974, 723-727.
[23]  Grove, W.J., Vermeulen, C.W., Goetz, R., and Ragins, H.D, “Experimental urolithiasis II. The influence of urine volume upon calculi experimentally produced upon foreign bodies,” The Journal of Urology, 64 (4). 549-554. Oct. 1950.
[24]  Prasad, K.V.S.R.G., Bharathi, K., and Srinivasan, K.K, “Evaluation of Rotula aquatica Lour for antilithiatic activity in albino rats,” Indian Drugs, 30(8). 398-404. Aug. 1993.
[25]  Souccar, C., Viel, T.A., Domingos, C.D., Monteiro, A.P.S., Lima-Landman, M.T.R., Lapa, A.J, “Evaluation of the antiurolithiatic activity of the extract of Costus spiralis Roscoe in rats,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 66. 193-198. Aug. 1999.
[26]  Vermeulen, C.W., Grove, W.J., Goetz, R., Ragins, H.D., and Correl, N.O, “Experimental urolithiasis. I. Development of calculi upon foreign bodies surgically introduced into bladders of rats,” Journal of Urology, 64 (4). 541-548. Oct. 1950.
[27]  Prasad, K., Sujatha, D., and Bharathi, K, “Herbal drugs in urolithiasis-a review,” Pharmacognosy Research, 1. 175-179. May. 2007.
[28]  Khan, Z.A., Assiri, A.M., Al-Afghani H.M., and Maghrbi, T.M, “Inhibition of oxalate nephrolithiasis with Ammivisnaga (Al-khillah),” International Urology and Nephrology, 33 (4). 605-608. 2001.
[29]  Khan, S.R, “Crystal induced inflammation of the kidneys results from human studies, animal models and tissue culture studies. Clinical and Experimental Nephrology, 8 (2). 75-88. Jun. 2004.
[30]  Michell, A.R, “Urolithiasis-historical, comparative and pathophysiological aspects: a review,” Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 82. 669. Nov. 1989.
[31]  Khan. S.R., and Hackett, R.L, “Calcium oxalate urolithiasis in the rats: Is it a model for human stone disease? A review of recent literature,” Scanning Electron Microscopy, Pt 2. 759-774. 1985.
[32]  Khan, S.R., and Glenton, P.A, “Experimental induction of calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis in mice,” Journal of Urology, 184 (3). 1189-1196. Sep. 2010.
[33]  Shah, J.G., Patel, B.G., Patel, S.B., and Patel, R.K, “Antiurolithiatic and antioxidant activity of Hordeum vulgare seeds on ethylene glycol-induced urolithiasis in rats,” Indian Journal of Pharmacology, 44 (6). 672-677. 2012.
[34]  Divakar, K., Pawar, A.T., Chandrasekhar, S.B., Dighe, S.B., and Divakar, G, “Protective effect of the hydro-alcoholic extract of Rubia cordifolia roots against ethylene glycol induced urolithiasis in rats,” Food Chemistry and Toxicology, 48 (4). 1013-1018. Apr. 2010.
[35]  Roger, K., Low, M.D., and Stoller, M.L, “Uric acid nephrolithiasis,” Urology Clinical of North America, 24. 135-148. Feb. 1997.
[36]  Moore, S., and Gowland, G, “The immunological integrity of matrix substance A and its possible detection and quantification in urine,” Brazilian Journal of Urology, 47. 489-494. Oct. 1975.