American Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
ISSN (Print): 2327-6711 ISSN (Online): 2327-672X Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/ajps Editor-in-chief: Srinivas NAMMI
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
American Journal of Pharmacological Sciences. 2014, 2(1), 7-11
DOI: 10.12691/ajps-2-1-2
Open AccessArticle

Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Silibinin in Animal Models of Chronic Inflammation

Tavga Ahmed Aziz1, Bushra Hasan Marouf1, Zheen Aorahman Ahmed2 and Saad Abdulrahman Hussain3,

1Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan, Iraq

2Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan, Iraq

3Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq

Pub. Date: January 16, 2014

Cite this paper:
Tavga Ahmed Aziz, Bushra Hasan Marouf, Zheen Aorahman Ahmed and Saad Abdulrahman Hussain. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Silibinin in Animal Models of Chronic Inflammation. American Journal of Pharmacological Sciences. 2014; 2(1):7-11. doi: 10.12691/ajps-2-1-2

Abstract

Attenuation of the chronic inflammatory response is a beneficial strategy to combat several human diseases. Traditional medicine offers many plant extracts and pure natural compounds as treatment options of a wide variety of disorders including acute and chronic inflammation. The present study was designed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of silibinin in experimental animal models of chronic and granulomatous inflammations. Forty-eight rats were used to induce chronic inflammation in the hind paw with formalin and granulomatous inflammation with sterile cotton pellets. The anti-inflammatory activity of silibinin (300 mg/kg, P.O) was evaluated in the two models, and compared with that produced by dexamethasone (1 mg/kg, P.O). Silibinin decreased significantly the formation of exudate and granulation tissue compared with the vehicle, but still significantly lower than that produced by dexamethasone. In conclusion, our data suggest that silibinin inhibits the production of edema and granulation tissue in experimental animal models of chronic inflammation, and could be a potential choice for the treatment of chronic inflammatory disorders.

Keywords:
silibinin chronic inflammation granuloma rats

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

References:

[1]  Ferrero-Miliani L, Nielsen OH, Andersen PS, Girardin SE. Chronic inflammation: importance of NOD2 and NALP3 in interleukin-1beta generation. Clin. Exp. Immunol., 2007 (147): 227-235. 2007.
 
[2]  Calder PC. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, inflammation, and inflammatory diseases. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 83 (Suppl. 6): 1505S-1519S. 2006.
 
[3]  Firestein GS. Evolving concepts of rheumatoid arthritis. Nature 2003; 423, 356-361.
 
[4]  Corrado B, Marco T, Colucci R, Fornai M, Antonioli L, Ghisu N, Tacca MD. Role of coxibs in the strategies for gastrointestinal protection in patients requiring chronic non-steroidal antiinflammatory therapy. Pharm. Res., 59: 90-100. 2009.
 
[5]  Wallis RS, Broder MS, Wong JY, Hanson ME, Beenhouwer DO. Granulomatous infectious diseases associated with tumor necrosis factor antagonists. Clin. Infect. Dis., 38 (9): 1261-1265. 2004.
 
[6]  Yoon JH, Baek SJ. Molecular targets of dietary polyphenols with anti-inflammatory properties. Yonsei Med. J., 46: 585-596. 2005.
 
[7]  Russo A, Acquaviva R, Campisi A, Sorrenti V, Di Giacomo C, Virgata G, et al. Bioflavonoids as antiradicals, antioxidants and DNA cleavage protectors. Cell Biol. Toxicol., 16: 91-98. 2000.
 
[8]  Havsteen B. The biochemistry and medical significance of the flavonoids. Pharmacol. Ther., 96: 67-202. 2002.
 
[9]  Pan MH, Lai CS, Ho CT. Anti-inflammatory activity of natural dietary flavonoids. Food Funct., 1 (1): 15-31. 2010.
 
[10]  Chirumbolo S. The role of quercetin, flavonols and flavones in modulating inflammatory cell function. Inflamm. Allergy Drug Targets, 9 (4): 263-285. 2010.
 
[11]  Bannwart CF, Peracoli JC, Nakaira-Takahagi E, Peracoli MT. Inhibitory effect of silibinin on tumor necrosis factor-alpha and hydrogen peroxide production by human monocytes. Nat. Prod. Res., 24 (18): 1747-1757. 2010.
 
[12]  Cheung CW, Gibbons N, Johnson DW, Nicol DL. Silibinin, a promising new treatment for cancer. Anticancer Agents Med. Chem., 10 (3): 186-195. 2010.
 
[13]  Li L, Zeng J, Gao Y, He D. Targeting silibinin in the anti-proliferative pathway. Expert Opin. Investig. Drugs, 19 (2): 243-255. 2010.
 
[14]  Lu P, Mamiya T, Lu LL, Mouri A, et al. Silibinin attenuates amyloid beta (25-35) peptide-induced memory impairments: implication of inducible nitric-oxide synthase and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in mice. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 331 (1): 319-326. 2009.
 
[15]  Joseph SM, George MC, Nair JR, et al. Effect of feeding cuttlefish liver oil on immune function, inflammatory response and platelet aggregation in rats. Curr. Sci., 88: 505-510. 2005.
 
[16]  Duffy JC, Dearden JC, Rostron C. Design, Synthesis and biological testing of a novelseries of anti-inflammatory drugs. J. Pharm. Pharmacol., 53: 1505-1514. 2001.
 
[17]  Winter CA, Porter CC. Effect of alteration inside chain upon anti-inflammatory and liver glycogen activities in hydrocortisone ester. J. Am. Pharm. Assoc., 46: 515-519. 1957.
 
[18]  Lagishetty CV, Naik SR. Polyamines: Potential anti-inflammatory agents and their possible mechanism of action. Indian J. Pharmacol., 40: 121-125. 2008.
 
[19]  Pan MH, Lai CS, Ho CT. Anti-inflammatory activity of natural dietary flavonoids. Food Funct., 1 (1): 15-31. 2010.
 
[20]  Juma'a KM, Ahmed ZA, Numan IT, Hussain SA. Dose-dependent anti-inflammatory effect of silymarin in experimental animal model of chronic inflammation. Afr. J. Pharm. Pharmacol., 3 (5): 242-247. 2009.
 
[21]  Hussain SA, Jassim NA, Numan IT, Al-Khalifa II, Abdullah TA. Anti-inflammatory activity of silymarin in patients with knee osteoarthritis: A comparative study with piroxicam and meloxicam. Saudi Med. J., 30 (1): 179-184. 2009.
 
[22]  Singh RP, Agarwal R. Mechanisms and preclinical efficacy of silibinin in preventing skin cancer. Eur. J. Cancer, 41: 1969-1979. 2005.
 
[23]  Varghese L, Agarwal C, Tyagi A. Silibinin efficacy against human hepatocellular carcinoma. Clin. Cancer Res., 11: 8441-8448. 2005.
 
[24]  Kim HP, Son KH, Chang HW, Kang SS. Anti-inflammatory plant flavonoids and cellular action mechanism. J. Pharmacol. Sci., 96: 229-245. 2004.
 
[25]  Gazak R, Walterova D, Kren V. Silybin and silymarin—new and emerging applications in medicine. Curr. Med. Chem., 14: 315-338. 2007.
 
[26]  Panthong A, Kanjanapothi D, Tuntiwachwuttikul P, Pancharoen O, Reutrakul V. Anti-inflammatory activity of flavonoids. Phytomedicine, 1: 141-144. 1994.
 
[27]  Pelzer LE, Guardia T, Osvaldo Juarez A, Guerreiro E. Acute and chronic anti-inflammatory effects of plant flavonoids. Farmacol., 53: 421-424. 1998.
 
[28]  Morikawa K, Nonaka M, Narahara M, Torii I, Kawaguchi K, Yoshikawa T. Inhibitory effect of quercetin on carrageenan-induced inflammation in rats. Life Sci., 74: 709-721. 2003.
 
[29]  Giorgi VS, Peracoli MT, Peracoli JC, Witkin SS, Bannwart-Castro CF. Silibinin modulates the NF-κb pathway and pro-inflammatory cytokine production by mononuclear cells from pre-eclamptic women. J. Reprod. Immunol., 95 (1-2): 67-72. 2012.