American Journal of Public Health Research
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American Journal of Public Health Research. 2017, 5(3), 70-78
DOI: 10.12691/ajphr-5-3-4
Open AccessArticle

Determinants of under Five Mortality in Ghana; A Logistic Regression Analysis Using Evidence from the Demographic and Health Survey (1988-2014)

Gideon Kwarteng Acheampong1, 2, and Yvette Eyram Avorgbedor2

1Ghana Health Service, Disease Surveillance Department, PMB Ministries, Accra-Ghana

2Ensign College of Public Health, P.O. Box AK 136, Kpong, Eastern Region-Ghana

Pub. Date: July 12, 2017

Cite this paper:
Gideon Kwarteng Acheampong and Yvette Eyram Avorgbedor. Determinants of under Five Mortality in Ghana; A Logistic Regression Analysis Using Evidence from the Demographic and Health Survey (1988-2014). American Journal of Public Health Research. 2017; 5(3):70-78. doi: 10.12691/ajphr-5-3-4

Abstract

A dramatic reduction in child mortality has been noted in Ghana in recent time and although the trend has been projected to continue to decline, studies have shown that the decline in under-five mortality has stalled and the effect more outstanding at different levels. Here we examine the issue of under five mortality using data from the demographic and health survey by examining the trends in under-five mortality between 1988-2014 and develop a predictive model to identify risk factors of under five mortality. Data from the Ghana Demographic and Health survey between 1988-2014 was used to conduct a retrospective analysis of recorded children data (0-5 years). A descriptive analysis of the explanatory and response variables was carried out followed by a subsequent trend analysis of under-five mortalities from 1988-2014. A logistic regression was used to predict the association between the explanatory variables and the dependent outcome variable. The study established that the decrease in under five mortality that Ghana witnessed from 1988-2014 was not significant and that more measures need to be put in place to reduce the phenomenon. Variables such as maternal age (R2=0.0646, p<0.05), duration of breastfeeding (R2=0.3300, p<0.05) and the type of assistance at delivery (R2=0.2898, p<0.05) were all strong predictors of under five mortality relative to other explanatory variables. The study identified that issues such as young maternal age, exclusive breast feeding beyond 6 months and unskilled or no assistance at birth were all contributors of under five mortality in Ghana and as such it is necessary for all these predictors to be addressed and factored during formulation and implementation of policies in an effort to curb under five mortality.

Keywords:
under five mortality Ghana demographic and health survey (GDHS) logistic regression child survival trend analysis

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