American Journal of Public Health Research
ISSN (Print): 2327-669X ISSN (Online): 2327-6703 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/ajphr Editor-in-chief: Apply for this position
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
American Journal of Public Health Research. 2016, 4(4), 134-141
DOI: 10.12691/ajphr-4-4-3
Open AccessArticle

Environmental and Socioeconomic Determinants of Child Mortality: Evidence from the 2013 Nigerian Demographic Health Survey

Adeolu M.O1, Akpa O.M2, Adeolu A.T3, and Aladeniyi I.O4

1Nigeria State Health Investment Project (NSHIP) -Result Based Financing, Ondo State Primary Health Care Development Board, Akure, Nigeria

2Department of Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria

3Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Kwara State University, Malete, Kwara State, Nigeria

4Department of Planning, Research and Statistics, Ministry of Health, Ondo State, Akure, Nigeria

Pub. Date: July 08, 2016

Cite this paper:
Adeolu M.O, Akpa O.M, Adeolu A.T and Aladeniyi I.O. Environmental and Socioeconomic Determinants of Child Mortality: Evidence from the 2013 Nigerian Demographic Health Survey. American Journal of Public Health Research. 2016; 4(4):134-141. doi: 10.12691/ajphr-4-4-3

Abstract

Despite the global decline in under-five mortality rate from 91 deaths per 1000 live births in 1990 to 43 deaths per 1000 live births in 2015 and Nigeria’s under-five mortality reduction from 201 per 1,000 live births in 2009 to 128 per 1,000 live births in 2013 as against the Sustainable Development Goal target of 25 per 1,000 live births, child mortality rate still remain unacceptably high in Nigeria and thereby has a long way to go in achieving this target. This study explores the household’s environmental, socio-economic characteristics, maternal demographic and their effect on child mortality. Data from the Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) 2013 was used to investigate the predictors of child (aged 0-4 years) mortality in Nigeria. Data for the currently married women who had experienced child mortality and those who have not, totaling 20,192. Cross-tabulation and binary logistic regression techniques were employed in the statistical analysis. The result indicated that child mortality rate was highest (46.0%) among mothers with no educational and lowest (13.6%) among mothers with tertiary education and was statistically significant in reducing the child mortality rate. Children born in households with unimproved toilet experienced highest mortality rate (41.0%) compared to those who were born in households with improved toilet (30.4%) and have substantial impact on child mortality. Maternal education and provision of sanitation facilities should be advocated as a strategy to reduce child mortality.

Keywords:
environmental determinant child mortality socio-economic determinant wealth index Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS)

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

References:

[1]  Mutunga, C. J. (2007). Environmental Determinants of Child Mortality in Kenya, UNU-WIDER Research paper No. 2007/83. Helsinki: United Nations University World Institute for Development Economics Research. Determinants of Child Mortality in Oyo State, Nigeria
 
[2]  WHO (2016). Global Health Observatory data, Geneva: World Health Organization.
 
[3]  Rajaratnam, J. K., Marcus, J. R., Flaxman, A. D., Wang, H., Levin-Rector, A., Dwyer, L., Costa, M., Lopez, A. D., and Murray, C. J. (2010). Neonatal, post-neonatal, childhood, and under-5 mortality for 187 countries, 1970-2010: a systematic analysis of progress towards Millennium Development Goal 4. Lancet 375: 1988-2008.
 
[4]  Espo, M. (2002). Infant mortality and its underlying determinants in rural Malawi’, [PhD thesis] University of Tampere Medical School. Kaleventie 4, FI-33014, University of Tampere, Finland.
 
[5]  Smith, E. G. (2010). Maternal Schooling and Child Mortality in Nigeria: The importance of the Actual curriculum [Online] Available: Princeton.edu/download.aspx?submissionld =100377.
 
[6]  Mesike CG and Mojekwu J, N (2012). Environmental determinants of child mortality in Nigeria. Journal of Sustainable Development, 5(1): 65-75.
 
[7]  Ojikutu, R. K. (2008). Pattern of Under-Five Deaths in Lagos State, Nigeria. Sudanese Journal of Public Health, 3(4).
 
[8]  Ogunjuyigbe P.O (2004). Under-Five Mortality in Nigeria: Perception and Attitude of the Yoruba towards the Existence of Abiku. Demographic Research: 11: 43-56
 
[9]  Mutunga, C.J (2007). Environmental determinants of child mortality in Kenya. UNU-WIDER Research Paper No 2007/83. Helsink: United Nations University World Institute for Development Economics Research.
 
[10]  National Population Commission (2009). National Population Commission, Federal Republic of Nigeria, Abuja, Nigeria and ICF Macro Calverton, Maryland, USA. Pg 630.
 
[11]  Nigeria Demographic Health Survey, 2013. DHS surveys. [electronic resource]. Calverton, MD: Macro InternationalInc. http://www.measuredhs.com/aboutsurveys/dhs/ start.cfm.
 
[12]  Fuchs, R., Pamuk, E., and Lutz, W. (2010). Education or wealth: which matters more for reducing child mortality in developing countries? Vienna Yearbook of Population Research 8: 175-199.
 
[13]  Adetoro GW and Amoo EO (2014). A Statistical Analysis of Child Mortality: Evidence from Nigeria. J. of Demography and Social Statistics, Vol 1. Pg 1-11.
 
[14]  Chowdhury QH, Rafiqul IR, Hossain K. (2010). Socioeconomic determinants of neonatal, postneonatal, infant and child mortality. International Journal of Sociology and Anthropol, 2: 118-125.
 
[15]  Iyun B.F (2000). Environmental factors, situation of women and child mortality in SouthWestern Nigeria. Soc. Sci. Med., 51: 1473 -89.
 
[16]  Osonwa, O.K., Iyam, M.A., & Osonwa, R.H., (2012). Under-Five Mortality in Nigeria: Perception and Attitudes of the IKWERRES in Rivers State towards the Existence of “OGBA – NJE”. Journal of Sociological Research, Vol. 3, No. 2,
 
[17]  Caldwell, J. C. (2009). Education as a Factor in Mortality Decline: An Examination of Nigerian Data. Population Studies, Vol. 33, No. 3, Pg 395-414.
 
[18]  Park, K. 2009. Preventive and Social Medicine, 20th ed. M/s Banarsidas Bhanot Publisher, India. Pg 489-491
 
[19]  United Nations Children’s Fund (2010). Levels and Trends in Child Mortality - Report 2010. Estimates Developed by the United Nations Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation. United Nations Children’s Fund. 2010.
 
[20]  Mondal NI, Hossain K, Korban A. (2009). Factors Influencing Infant and Child Mortality: A Case Study of Rajshahi District, Bangladesh. Journal of Human Ecology; 26: 31-39.
 
[21]  Jacoby H, Wang L. (2003). Environmental Determinants of Child Mortality in Rural China: A Competing Risks Approach. Washington DC: World Bank.
 
[22]  Younger, P.L (2007). Groundwater in the environment: an introduction Blackwell: London, Groundwater in the environment: an introduction, pg 390.
 
[23]  Uddin J, Hossain Z, Ullah MO (2009). Child Mortality in a Developing Country: A Statistical Analysis, Journal of Applied Quantitative Methods; 4: 270-283.