American Journal of Public Health Research
ISSN (Print): 2327-669X ISSN (Online): 2327-6703 Website: Editor-in-chief: Apply for this position
Open Access
Journal Browser
American Journal of Public Health Research. 2016, 4(3), 93-97
DOI: 10.12691/ajphr-4-3-3
Open AccessArticle

Does Breast Cancer Risk Awareness Motivate Personal Prevention Practices: Findings from a Community-based Assessment?

Ouma J1, , Olang’ S2, Asweto CO3, 4, Obago IT1 and Kaseje D2

1University of Kabianga, Kabianga, Kenya

2Tropical Institute of Community Health, Great Lakes University of Kisumu, Kisumu, Kenya

3School of Public Health, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China

4School of Health Science, Great Lakes University of Kisumu, Kisumu, Kenya

Pub. Date: April 26, 2016

Cite this paper:
Ouma J, Olang’ S, Asweto CO, Obago IT and Kaseje D. Does Breast Cancer Risk Awareness Motivate Personal Prevention Practices: Findings from a Community-based Assessment?. American Journal of Public Health Research. 2016; 4(3):93-97. doi: 10.12691/ajphr-4-3-3


Breast cancer, is the leading cause of cancer specific mortality. But nearly 80% of the mortality is preventable by early diagnosis. We assessed knowledge and practice of breast cancer prevention by women in a rural community setting. Data was collected on demographics, family history, knowledge and practice of breast cancer by interviewer administered questionnaire. Knowledge (including knowledge of risk) and practice were measured using a response-based score to a set of 9 and 10 questions respectively. Prevalence odds ratio was calculated to estimate association between independent and outcome variables. Knowledge of breast cancer risk was low (14.2%). Family history and socioeconomic status were significantly associated with knowledge; respondents with more than eight years of school were more likely to have higher knowledge (OR=2.859; CI=1.578-5.178). Practice of prevention was equally low (17.2%). Practice was significantly associated with knowledge; respondents with higher knowledge of prevention were more likely to practice prevention (OR=6.8; CI=3.308-14.104). We propose that community-based risk communication and awareness creating programs may motivate breast cancer prevention practices. Women of lower socio-economic status should especially be targeted with such interventions. There is need to develop these into a sustainable community-based health education program.

breast cancer knowledge practice community prevention

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  WHO. (2008). World Cancer Report . Geneva: WHO Press.
[2]  Zimmerman J. (1997). The Belmonte Report: An Ethical Framework for Protecting Research Subject. Association of Clinical Research Professionals, Newton, USA. Available at
[3]  Ekanem, A. (2009). History of Cancer Registration in the World and in Naigeria. Calabar: Calabar Cancer Registry.
[4]  WHO. (2007). The World Health Organisation's Fight Against Cancer; Strategies that prevent, cure and care. Geneva: WHO Press.
[5]  Akarolo-Antony, N., et al. (2010). Emerging Breast Cancer Epidemic: Evidence from Africa. Breast Cancer Research , 12 (4), 8.
[6]  Howel, A. (2010). The Breast Cancer Epidemic; Early diagnosis and treatment. Breast Cancer Research , 12 (4), 10.
[7]  Uganda Breast Cancer Working Group (2003 Apr.). Breast cancer guidelines for Uganda. Afr Health Sci.; 3(1):47-50.
[8]  Newman LA, Fregene A. (2005). Breast cancer in sub-Saharan Africa: How does it relate to breast cancer in African-American women? International Journal of Cancer (103)8:1540-1550.
[9]  Chen VW, Correa P, Kurman PJ, et al. (1994). Histiologic characteristics of Breast Carcinoma in blacks and whites. Cancer epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention. 3:127-135.
[10]  Hakama M, Pukkala E, Kallio M, Godenhjelm K, Svinhufvud U (1995). Effectiveness of screening for breast cancer in women under 50 years at entry: The Kokta Pilot Project in Finland. International Journal of Cancer, 63:55-57. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text
[11]  Semiglazov VF, Moiseenko VM, Manikhas AG, Protsenko SA, Kharikova RS, Popova RT, Migmanova NSh, Orlov AA, Barash NIu, Ivanova OA, Ivanov VG (1999). Role of breast self examination in early detection of breast cancer:Russia/WHO Prospective Randomize Trial In St. Petersburg. Cancer Strategy, 29:145-151.
[12]  Budden L (1995): Young women's breast self-examination knowledge and practice. Journal of Community Health Nursing, 12:23-32. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text.
[13]  WHO and International Agency for Research on Cancer (2008). GLOBOCAN 2008. Estimated cancer Incidence, Mortality, Prevalence and Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) Worldwide in 2008.<
[14]  Ministry of Public Health and Sanitation and Ministry of Medical Services (Ministries of Health). National Cancer Control Strategy. 2011-2016 > Accessed 3 June 2013.
[15]  World Health Organization (2013). Fact sheet N°297 Reviewed January 2013 ttp://
[16]  Balagun, M., & Waoje, T. (2005). Knowledge and Practice of Breast Self Examination among Female Traders in Ibadan, Nigeria. Annals of Ibadan Postgraduate Medicine , 3 (2), 52-56.
[17]  Heidari, Z., et al. (2008). Breast Cancer Screening and Knowledge among Womne in South East of Iran. Acta Medica Iranica , 46 (4), 322-328.
[18]  Cuzick, J. (2010). Breast Cancer prevention in the Developing World. Breast Cancer Research , 12 (4), 9.
[19]  Fikree, M., & Hamade, R. (2011). Breast Cabcer Knowledge among Bahraini Women Attending Primary Health Care Centers. Bahraini Medical Bulletin , 33 (3), 1-8.