American Journal of Public Health Research
ISSN (Print): 2327-669X ISSN (Online): 2327-6703 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/ajphr Editor-in-chief: Apply for this position
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
American Journal of Public Health Research. 2014, 2(1), 6-9
DOI: 10.12691/ajphr-2-1-2
Open AccessArticle

Considerations to Planning Orthognathic Surgery in Different Regions of Saudi and the Middle East

Mazen Almasri1, and Sara M. Bukhari2

1Assistant professor, Umm Alqura University, Oral Maxillofacial Surgery Department, Saudi Arabia

2King Abdulaziz Medical City. Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

Pub. Date: January 03, 2014

Cite this paper:
Mazen Almasri and Sara M. Bukhari. Considerations to Planning Orthognathic Surgery in Different Regions of Saudi and the Middle East. American Journal of Public Health Research. 2014; 2(1):6-9. doi: 10.12691/ajphr-2-1-2

Abstract

Objectives: to properly plan orthongathic surgery and the fine beauty details in it, understanding different ethnic facial norms is necessary. In Saudi, investigating the existence of any facial variation has not been studied before, and hence we are investigating the existence of any variation of soft tissue profile (STP) among Saudi patients in the Southern region (SSA) when compared to the middle region of Saudi (MSA) that require considerations when planning facial surgeries. Material and methods: A retrospective chart review from August 2010 to June 2012 of Patients with class I skeletal relation, no history of orthognathic facial deformity, syndromes nor cleft lip and palate were included in the study. 93 patients with an age ranged from 15-33 years old were compared to a similar group in the MSA. Clinical pictures and lateral cephalometric radiographs superimpositions were used to examine the data and tabulate the results. Results: it has been shown that although similarities exist between the STP of patients in the SSA and MSA, some characters were found significantly different in SSA group such as females showing more microgenic tendency, more acute nasolabial angle and larger interlabial gap than MSA females. While SSA males on as well showed more microgenia and longer face tendency than MSA males. Conclusion: When planning orthognathic surgery for SSA patients, careful consideration for lower facial third character is necessary as tendency toward microgenia in the patient population sounds like a common feature in males and females.

Keywords:
orthognathic profile treatment plan

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Figures

Figure of 1

References:

[1]  Legan, H., Burstone, C.J, “Soft tissue cephalometric analysis for orthognathic surgery”. J. Oral Surg. 38, 1980, pp. 744-751.
 
[2]  Holdaway, R., “A soft-tissue cephalometric analysis and its use in orthodontic treatment planning. Part I”. Am. J. Orthod. 84 (1), 1983, pp. 1-2.
 
[3]  Bergman, R., “Cephalometric soft tissue facial analysis”. Am. J. Orthod. Dentofacial Orthop. 116 (4), 1999, pp. 373-89.
 
[4]  Subtelny, J., “A longitudinal study of soft tissue facial structures and their profile characteristics, defined in relation to underlying skeletal structures.” Am. J. Orthod. 45, 1959, pp. 481-507.
 
[5]  Hwang, H., Kim, W.S., McNamara Jr, “Ethnic differences in the soft tissue profile of Korean and European-American adults with normal occlusions and well-balanced faces”. Angle Orthod. 72 (1), 2002, pp. 72-80.
 
[6]  Lew, K., Ho, K.K., Keng, S.B., Ho, K.H, “Soft-tissue cephalometric norms in Chinese adults with esthetic facial profiles.” J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg. 50, 1992, pp. 1184-1189.
 
[7]  Scavone, H., Trevisan, H., Garib, D.G., Ferreira, F.V, “Facial profile evaluation in Japanese-Brazilian adults with normal occlusions and well-balanced faces.” Am. J. Orthod. Dentofacial Orthop. 129, 2006, pp. 721-25.
 
[8]  Al-Gunaid, T., Yamada, K., Yamaki, M., Saitod, I, “Soft-tissue cephalometric norms in Yemeni men.” Am. J. Orthod. Dentofacial Orthop. 132, 2007, pp. 576.
 
[9]  AlBarakati, S., Bindayel N.A., “Holdaway soft tissue cephalometric standards for Saudi adults.” J. King Saud Univ.dental Sci. 3, 2012, pp. 27-32.
 
[10]  Baidas, L., AlBarakati, S.A., “Comparative Orthognathic Cephalometric Study Among Saudi, African-American and Japanese Adults: Hard Tissue Measurements.” J. King Saud Univ.dental Sci. 22 (1), 2011, pp. 15-24.
 
[11]  AlBarakati, S., “Soft tissue facial profile of adult Saudis.” Saudi Med J. 32 (9), 2011, pp. 836-842.
 
[12]  AlBarakati, S., Baidas L.F., “Orthognathic surgical norms for a sample of Saudi adults: Hard tissue measurements.” Saudi Dent. J. 22, 2010, pp. 133-139.
 
[13]  Al-Barakati, S., Talic, N.F, “Cephalometric norms for Saudi sample using McNamara analysis.” Saudi Dent. J. 19, 2007, pp. 139-145.
 
[14]  Aldrees, A., “Lateral cephalometric norms for Saudi adults: A meta-analysis.” Saudi Dent. J. 23, 2011, pp. 3-7.
 
[15]  Al-Jasser, N., “Facial esthetics in a selected Saudi population.” Saudi Med. J. 24 (9), 2003. pp. 1000-1005.
 
[16]  Hashim, H., “A cephalometric study of soft tissue relationship among Saudi female dental students.” Saudi Dent. J. 15 (1), 2003, pp. 41-44.
 
[17]  Hashim, H., AlBarakati, S.F, “Cephalometric soft tissue profile analysis between two different ethnic groups: a comparative study.” J. Contemp. Dent. Pract. 4 (2), 2003, pp. 60-73.
 
[18]  Abdul–Qadir, M., Al-Dawoody, A.D., Agha, N.F, “Evaluation of Holdaway Soft Tissue Analysis for Iraqi Adults with Class I Normal Occlusion.” Al–Rafidain Dent J, 8 (2), 2008, pp. 231-237.
 
[19]  Abu-Tayyem, H., Alshamsi, A.H., Hafez, S, Mohie Eldin E, “Cephalometric norms for a sample of Emirates adults.” Open Journal of Stomatology. 1 (3), 2010, pp. 75-83.
 
[20]  Uysal, T., Baysal, A., Yagci, A., Sigler, L.M., McNamara, J.A, “Ethnic differences in the soft tissue profiles of Turkish and European-American young adults with normal occlusions and well-balanced faces.” Eur. J. Orthod. 34 (3), 2012, pp. 296-301.
 
[21]  Shalhoub, H., Sarhan, O.A., Shaikh, H.S., “Adult cephalometric norms for Saudi Arabians with a comparison of values for Saudi and North American Caucasians.” Br. J. Orthod. 14, 1987, pp. 273-279.