American Journal of Public Health Research
ISSN (Print): 2327-669X ISSN (Online): 2327-6703 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/ajphr Editor-in-chief: Apply for this position
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
American Journal of Public Health Research. 2019, 7(6), 197-202
DOI: 10.12691/ajphr-7-6-2
Open AccessArticle

Objectively Measured Physical Activity and Health-related Quality of Life as Predictors of Mortality in U.S. Adults

Peter D. Hart1,

1Health Promotion Research, Havre, MT 59501

Pub. Date: December 15, 2019

Cite this paper:
Peter D. Hart. Objectively Measured Physical Activity and Health-related Quality of Life as Predictors of Mortality in U.S. Adults. American Journal of Public Health Research. 2019; 7(6):197-202. doi: 10.12691/ajphr-7-6-2

Abstract

Background: Few national-level studies have examined the effects of both physical activity (PA) and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) on mortality. The purpose of this study was to examine the ability of PA and HRQOL to predict all-cause mortality in U.S. adults. Methods: Data for this research came from the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and its 2011 mortality-linked National Death Index (NDI) file. Moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA, min/day) was objectively determined by accelerometry and participants were categorized into low or high groups using the median. HRQOL was assessed by a single question asking participants to rate their general health. Participants rating their health as “good”, “very good”, or “excellent” were considered to have good HRQOL whereas those rating it “fair” or “poor” were considered to have poor HRQOL. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to determine the independent effects of MVPA and HRQOL on all-cause mortality while controlling for covariates. Results: In the fully adjusted females model, participants were at greater risk of mortality if they engaged in low amounts of MVPA (Hazard Ratio (HR)=2.82, 95% CI: 1.02-7.85) and had poor HRQOL (HR=7.19, 95% CI: 2.30-22.51) with no significant (p=.133) MVPA-by-HRQOL interaction. Conversely, the equivalent males model saw a significant (p=.002) MVPA-by-HRQOL interaction, resulting in an analysis of simple effects. In the fully adjusted males with good HRQOL model, participants were at greater risk of mortality if they engaged in low amounts of MVPA (HR=2.92, 95% CI: 1.56-5.49). However, in the males with poor HRQOL model, MVPA could not significantly predict mortality (HR=1.04, 95% CI: 0.49-2.24). Conclusion: Results from this study indicate that MVPA and HRQOL independently predict all-cause mortality in U.S. female adults. In U.S. male adults, MVPA predicts all-cause mortality only in those with good HRQOL.

Keywords:
physical activity Accelerometry Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) Mortality

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

References:

[1]  Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee. Physical activity guidelines advisory committee report, 2008. Washington, DC: US Department of Health and Human Services. 2008 Jun 24; 2008: A1-H14.
 
[2]  US Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, US Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. Healthy people 2020.
 
[3]  Hart, P. D., Benavidez, G. A., & Erickson, J. (2017). Meeting recommended levels of physical activity in relation to preventive health behavior and health status among adults. Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health. 2017; 50(1): 10-17.
 
[4]  Hart PD, Buck DJ. The effect of resistance training on health-related quality of life in older adults: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Health promotion perspectives. 2019; 9(1): 1.
 
[5]  Hart PD. Meeting recommended levels of physical activity and health-related quality of life in rural adults. Journal of lifestyle medicine. 2016 Mar; 6(1): 1.
 
[6]  Jakicic JM, King WC, Gibbs BB, Rogers RJ, Rickman AD, Davis KK, Wahed A, Belle SH. Objective versus self-reported physical activity in overweight and obese young adults. Journal of Physical Activity and Health. 2015 Oct 1; 12(10): 1394-400.
 
[7]  DeFina LF, Radford NB, Barlow CE, Willis BL, Leonard D, Haskell WL, Farrell SW, Pavlovic A, Abel K, Berry JD, Khera A. Association of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality with high levels of physical activity and concurrent coronary artery calcification. JAMA cardiology. 2019 Feb 1; 4(2): 174-81.
 
[8]  Roser K, Mader L, Baenziger J, Sommer G, Kuehni CE, Michel G. Health-related quality of life in Switzerland: normative data for the SF-36v2 questionnaire. Quality of life research. 2019 Jul 15; 28(7): 1963-77.
 
[9]  Shin WK, Song S, Jung SY, Lee E, Kim Z, Moon HG, Noh DY, Lee JE. The association between physical activity and health-related quality of life among breast cancer survivors. Health and quality of life outcomes. 2017 Dec; 15(1): 132.
 
[10]  Vallance JK, Boyle T, Courneya KS, Lynch BM. Associations of objectively assessed physical activity and sedentary time with health-related quality of life among colon cancer survivors. Cancer. 2014 Sep 15; 120(18): 2919-26.
 
[11]  Zipf G, Chiappa M, Porter KS, et al. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey: Plan and operations, 1999-2010. National Center for Health Statistics. Vital Health Stat 1(56). 2013.
 
[12]  National Center for Health Statistics. Office of Analysis and Epidemiology. Analytic Guidelines for NCHS 2011 Linked Mortality Files, August, 2013. Hyattsville, Maryland
 
[13]  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Health Statistics. NHANES 2003-2004 Laboratory Procedures Manual: 16. Physical Activity Monitor; 2004.
 
[14]  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Health Statistics. NHANES 2003-2004 Current Health Status – HSQ; 2004.
 
[15]  Tabachnick BG, Fidell LS. Using multivariate statistics, 5th. Needham Height, MA: Allyn & Bacon. 2007.
 
[16]  Cody RP, Smith JK. Applied statistics and the SAS programming language. North-Holland; 1985.
 
[17]  Allison PD. Survival analysis using SAS: a practical guide. SAS Institute; 2010.
 
[18]  SAS/STAT(R) 14.1 User's Guide. Introduction to Survey Sampling and Analysis Procedures. SAS Institute. July 2015.
 
[19]  Hennessy CH, Moriarty DG, Zack MM, Scherr PA, Brackbill R. Measuring health-related quality of life for public health surveillance. Public health reports. 1994 Sep; 109(5): 665.
 
[20]  Cunny KA, Perri III M. Single-item vs multiple-item measures of health-related quality of life. Psychological reports. 1991 Aug; 69(1): 127-30.