American Journal of Nursing Research
ISSN (Print): 2378-5594 ISSN (Online): 2378-5586 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/ajnr Editor-in-chief: Apply for this position
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
American Journal of Nursing Research. 2018, 6(6), 515-523
DOI: 10.12691/ajnr-6-6-20
Open AccessArticle

Effectiveness of an Educational Program in Enhancing Infertile Women’s Psychological Health

Nagwa A. Souilm1, , Nawal Kamal Abd Elkhalek2 and Mervat Mohamed Hassan2

1Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, South Valley University, Egypt

2Obstetrics and Gynecological Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, South Valley University, Egypt

Pub. Date: October 31, 2018

Cite this paper:
Nagwa A. Souilm, Nawal Kamal Abd Elkhalek and Mervat Mohamed Hassan. Effectiveness of an Educational Program in Enhancing Infertile Women’s Psychological Health. American Journal of Nursing Research. 2018; 6(6):515-523. doi: 10.12691/ajnr-6-6-20

Abstract

Background: Infertility is a worldwide problem with negative impacts on psychological health of couples. Nurses have a crucial role in the mitigation of these problems. Aim of the study: To examine the effectiveness of a nursing intervention in enhancing infertile women’s psychological health and improving associated disorders. Subjects and methods: The study was conducted in the outpatient department at Qena General Hospital using a one-group quasi-experimental design. It involved 90 infertile women attending the setting for management. An interview questionnaire form with four scales namely the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), Narcissistic Personality Inventory, Experiences of Close Relationships-Revised (ECR-R), and the Defensive Style Questionnaire (DSQ-60) was used in data collection. The researcher designed and implemented by the researchers in the light of the needs identified in the pre-intervention assessment phase. The study was achieved through assessment, planning, implementation, and evaluation phases. Results: Women’ age ranged between 21 and 47 years, mostly with primary infertility (80.0%). Statistically significant improvements were demonstrated at the post-intervention phase in all four domains of GHQ (p<0.001), and the mean total score increased from 39.6 to 68.0 (p<0.001). The total median narcissism personality score decreased from 24.50 before the intervention to 16.00 after the intervention (p<0.001). As for ECR-attachment scale, the median dropped from 4.16 to 3.11 (p<0.001). Similar statistically significant post-intervention improvements were revealed in the DSQ-60 scale. The multivariate analysis identified the study intervention as the main positive predictor of the GHQ score, a negative predictor of the narcissistic and ECR scores. Meanwhile, the study intervention was a positive predictor of the adapt DSQ domain whereas it was a negative predictor of the affect regulating domain score. Conclusion and recommendations: Infertile women suffer a number of psychological problems that are amenable to treatment through simple educational nursing interventions. Such educational endeavors should be implemented on a wide scale in all similar settings.

Keywords:
infertility GHQ narcissistic personality ECR-R DSQ-60

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

References:

[1]  Vander Borght M., and Wyns C. (2018). Fertility and infertility: Definition and epidemiology. Clin Biochem. 2018 Mar 16. pii: S0009-9120(18)30220-0.
 
[2]  Altmäe S., Stavreus-Evers A., Ruiz J.R., Laanpere M., Syvänen T., Yngve A., Salumets A., Nilsson T.K. (2010). Variations in folate pathway genes are associated with unexplained female infertility. Fertility and Sterility. 94 (1): 130-137.
 
[3]  Assisted Conception Taskforce [ACT], (2014). Trying to have a baby. Your step-by-step guide to assistedconception. Available online: http://www.assistedconception.net/resources/ACT_Ratgeber.pdfdownloaded 11/4/.
 
[4]  WHO (2013). World Health Organization. Infertility. 2013.
 
[5]  Gurunath S., Pandian Z., Anderson R.A., and Bhattacharya S. (2011). “Defining infertility--a systematic review of prevalence studies. Human Reproduction Update.; 17 (5): 575-88.
 
[6]  Maya N. et al., (2012). National, regional, and global trends in infertility of 227 health survey. Published. December 18, 2012.
 
[7]  GBD (2015). Disease and Injury Incidence and Prevalence, Collaborators. (8 October 2016). “Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 310 diseases and injuries, 1990-2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015”. Lancet.; 388 (10053): 1545-1602.
 
[8]  Abbara A., Clarke S.A., and Dhillo W.S. (2012). Novel concepts for inducing final oocyte maturation in IVF (In Vitro Fertilization) Treatment. Endocr Rev. 2018 Jul 2.
 
[9]  Mayo Clinic Staff (2017). Narcissistic personality disorder - Symptoms & causes, Mayo Clinic, Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, retrieved June 28, 2018.
 
[10]  Gerald Alper (2003). Self Defence in a Narcissistic World p. 10.
 
[11]  Narcissistic Personality Disorder (2017). In: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM-5. 5th ed. Arlington, Va.: American Psychiatric Association; 2013. http://dsm.psychiatryonline.org. Accessed Sept. 25.
 
[12]  Ronningstam E. (2010). Narcissistic personality disorder: a current review. Curr Psychiatr Rep.; 12: 68-75.
 
[13]  Shahnaz Anwar1 et al., (2016). Infertility: A Review on Causes, Treatment and Management This article was published in the following Scient Open Access Journal: Women’s Health & Gynecology Received May 20, 2016; Accepted June 10, 2016; Published June 16, 2016.
 
[14]  Kenneth I.A., Philip J.U., Timothy G. J., Alan H., Bradley R.C., Andrew D.S., and Douglas T.C. (2015). Aberrant sperm DNA methylation predicts male fertility status and embryo quality. Fertility and Sterility; 104 (6): 1388-1397.
 
[15]  Domar A.D., Rooney K., Hacker M.R., Sakkas D., and Dodge L.E. (2018). Burden of care is the primary reason why insured women terminate in vitro fertilization treatment. Fertil Steril.; 109(6): 1121-1126.
 
[16]  Goldberg D. (1978). Manual of the General Health Questionnaire. Windsor: NFER-Nelson.
 
[17]  Failde I. and Ramos R. (2000). Comparison between the GHQ-28 and SF-36 (MH 1-5) for the assessment of the mental health in patients with Ischemic heartdisease. Eur J Epidemiol; 16:311.
 
[18]  Sakakibara B.M., Miller W.C., Orenczuk S.G., Wolfe D.L., Team S.R. (2009). A systematic review of depression and anxiety measures used with individuals with spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord; 47(12): 841-51.
 
[19]  Raskin R.N. and Calvin S.H. (1979). A Narcissistic Personality Inventory. Psychological Reports; 45.2 (1979): 590-590.
 
[20]  Ackerman R.A., Witt E.A., Donnellan M.B., Trzesniewski K.H., Robins R.W., and Kashy D.A. (2011). What Does the Narcissistic Personality Inventory Really Measure? Assessment; 18(1) 67-87.
 
[21]  Fraley R. C., Waller N. G., and Brennan K. A. (2000). An item-response theory analysis of self-report measures of adult attachment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology; 78: 350-365.
 
[22]  Fraley R. C. (2002). Attachment stability from infancy to adulthood: Meta-analysis and dynamic modeling of development mechanisms. Personality and Social Psychology Review; 6: 123-151.
 
[23]  Thygesen K. L., Drapeau M., Trijsburg R. W., Lecours S., and de Roten Y. (2008). Assessing defense styles: Factor structure and psychometric properties of the new Defense Style Questionnaire 60 (DSQ-60). The International Journal of Psychology and Psychological Therapy; 8: 171-181.
 
[24]  Craúovan D.I. (2011). Fundamentele testării psihologice [Bases of Psychological Testing]. Timiúoara: Editura Eurostampa. ISBN 978-606-569-205-3.
 
[25]  Tamparo C., Lewis M. (2011). Diseases of the Human Body. Philadelphia, PA: F.A. Davis Company. P. 459. ISBN 9780803625051.
 
[26]  Gleicher N. (2018). Expected advances in human fertility treatments and their likely translational consequences. J Transl Med.; 16(1): 149.
 
[27]  Benksim A., Elkhoudri N., Addi R.A., Baali A., and Cherkaoui M. (2018). Difference between Primary and Secondary Infertility in Morocco: Frequencies and Associated Factors. Int J Fertil Steril.; 12(2): 142-146.
 
[28]  Zhou Z., Zheng D., Wu H., Li R., Xu S., Kang Y., Cao Y., Chen X., Zhu Y., Xu S., Chen Z.J., Mol B.W., and Qiao J. (2018). Epidemiology of infertility in China: a population-based study. BJOG.; 125(4): 432-441.
 
[29]  Rashidi B.H. et al. (2017). Behavioral Defensive Mechanism in Infertile Couples; 6(Issue 3): 49-54.
 
[30]  Namdar A., Naghizadeh M.M., Zamani M., Yaghmaei F., and Sameni M.H. (2017). Quality of life and general health of infertile women. Health Qual Life Outcomes. 15(1): 139.
 
[31]  Ghasemi M., Kordi M., Asgharipour N., Esmaeili H., and Amirian M. (2017). The effect of a positive reappraisal coping intervention and problem-solving skills training on coping strategies during waiting period of IUI treatment: An RCT. Int J Reprod Biomed (Yazd).; 15(11): 687-696.
 
[32]  Pasha H., Basirat Z., Faramarzi M., and Kheirkhah F. (2018). Comparative Effectiveness of Antidepressant Medication versus Psychological Intervention on Depression Symptoms in Women with Infertility and Sexual Dysfunction. Int J Fertil Steril.; 12(1): 6-12.
 
[33]  Poddar S., Sanyal N., and Mukherjee U. (2014). Psychological profile of women with infertility: A comparative study. Ind Psychiatry J.; 23(2):117-26.
 
[34]  Whitehead K. (2016). Motherhood as a Gendered Entitlement: Intentionality, Othering, and Homosociality in the Online Infertility Community. Can Rev Sociol.; 53(1): 94-122.
 
[35]  Dada O.A., Faloye B.B., and Dumet D.J. (2012). Phenotypic variability of some morphological traits among Canavalia species. Scholarly Journal of Agricultural Science; 2(5). 87-93.
 
[36]  Duthie E.A., Cooper A., Davis J.B., Sandlow J., Schoyer K.D., Strawn E., and Flynn K.E. (2017). Priorities for family building among patients and partners seeking treatment for infertility. Reprod Health. 14(1):52.
 
[37]  Sormunen T., Aanesen A., Fossum B., Karlgren K., and Westerbotn M. (2018). Infertility-related communication and coping strategies among women affected by primary or secondary infertility. J Clin Nurs.; 27(1-2): e335-e344.
 
[38]  Li X.Q., Sun C.F., and Guo M. (2017). Benefits of nursing care service in the assisted reproduction clinic to self-cycle-management and self-efficiency of infertility patients. Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue.; 23(6):536-539.