American Journal of Nursing Research
ISSN (Print): 2378-5594 ISSN (Online): 2378-5586 Website: Editor-in-chief: Apply for this position
Open Access
Journal Browser
American Journal of Nursing Research. 2018, 6(5), 317-326
DOI: 10.12691/ajnr-6-5-14
Open AccessArticle

Maternal Markers for Detecting Urinary Tract Infection among Pregnant Women in Port Said City, Egypt

Mirfat Mohamed Labib El-Kashif1, and Samia Eaid Elgazzar2

1Obstetric and Gynecological Nursing- Faculty of Nursing- Port Said University, Egypt

2Medical-Surgical Nursing, Faculty of Nursing-Port Said University, Egypt

Pub. Date: August 03, 2018

Cite this paper:
Mirfat Mohamed Labib El-Kashif and Samia Eaid Elgazzar. Maternal Markers for Detecting Urinary Tract Infection among Pregnant Women in Port Said City, Egypt. American Journal of Nursing Research. 2018; 6(5):317-326. doi: 10.12691/ajnr-6-5-14


Background: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the highest frequently problem caused by bacterial factors in a pregnant woman, which can lead to significant complications for both fetus and mother that hasten early detection for problems and prevention. The study aimed to identify the maternal markers for detecting urinary tract infection among pregnant women in port said City, Egypt. Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive design was performed on 101 pregnant women who attend the obstetrics and gynecology clinic at Port Said general hospital with the inclusion criteria from first September 2017 to end of February 2018. The structured interviewing questionnaire and Laboratory test record were used to collect the data using a purposive sample. Result: In this study, 53.5 % of the studied women had positive bacteria in the urine culture. E. coli (39%) had the highest percentage of the isolated bacteria followed by Staphylococcus aureus (26%). The frequency of micturition, followed by dysuria, lower abdominal pain, urine color change, painful burning sensation, incomplete bladder evacuation were the most common maternal markers, predisposing factors associated with UTI during pregnancy were age, occupation, family income, previous treatment for UTI during current pregnancy, regular urination, diabetes mellitus, and previous urinary tract infection. Recommendations: A guidelines about preventive measures of UTI for pregnant women should be providing. Since the symptoms are considered reliable markers for detecting UTI during pregnancy, so suitable screening for early detection and provide proper treatment for infected cases should be implemented.

Urinary tract infection (UTI) pregnancy bacteria

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Ordaz-Lopez, V.I., Manzo-Banales, H.M.1., Garcia- Herrera, H., Cerda-Rivera, P.E.1., Ochoa MCand Ramirez-Leyva, D.H (2016). Urinary Tract Infection in Pregnancy: A Study of Pathogen and Bacterial Resistance in Mexico J Fam Med - Volume 3 Issue 11 - ISSN: 2380-0658.
[2]  Mohamed, N.R., Omar, H., and Abd-Allah, I.M. (2017). Prevalence and Risk Factors of Urinary Tract Infection among Pregnant Women in Ismailia City, Egypt. IOSR Journal of Nursing and Health Science (IOSR-JNHS) e-ISSN: 2320-1959.p- ISSN: 2320-1940 Volume 6, Issue 3 Ver. VII (May - June), PP 62-72.
[3]  Jalali, M., Shamsi, M., Roozbehani, N. and Kabir, K (2014). Prevalence of Urinary Tract Infection and Some Factors Affected in Pregnant Women in Iran Karaj City 2013. Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research 20 (7): 781-785, ISSN 1990-9233.
[4]  Mendell, G., Bennett, J. & Dolin, R. (2009). Principles and practices of infectious diseases. 6thed. Filipinas: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone;
[5]  Duarte, G., Marcolin, A.C., Quintana, S.M, et al. (2008). Urinary tract infection during pregnancy. Rev Bras Ginecol Obstet.; 30(2): 93-100.
[6]  Tamalli, M., Sangar, B., & Alghazal, M. A. (2013). Urinary tract infection in pregnancy at Al-khoms, Libya. International Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences 3 (5), 455-459.
[7]  Schnarr, J. & Smaill, F. (2008). Asymptomatic bacteriuria and symptomatic urinary tract infections in pregnancy Eur J Clin Invest. Oct; 38 Suppl 2: 50-7 Faculty of Health Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada.
[8]  Calderón, U., Doren, A., Cruz, M., Cerda, J., Abarzua, F (2009). Acute pyelonephritis in pregnancy and antimicrobial susceptibility of uropathogens. Rev Chil Ginecol Obstet.; 74.
[9]  Faidah, H., Ashshi, A., Hada, A., Al-ghamdi, G. & Amr, M. (2013). Urinary Tract Infections among Pregnant Women in Makkah, Saudi Arabia Biomedical & Pharmacology JournalVol. 6(1), 01-07.
[10]  Minardi, D., D' Anzeo, G, Cantoro, D, et al. (2011). Urinary tract infections in women: etiology and treatment options. Int J Gen Med; 4: 333-343.
[11]  Lowdermilk, D.L., Perry, S.E., Cashion, M. C. & Alden, K. R. (2014). Maternity and women's health care. 11th ed., (St. Lois: Elsevier, 283:299, 317, 728:731.
[12]  Perry, S.E., Hockenberry, M.J., Lowdermilk, D.l. & D. (2014). Wilson, Maternal-child nursing care. Pregnancy. 5th ed., (Philadelphia: Mosby Elsevier) 200: 201, 332:340.
[13]  Nursing consult (2014). Renal Disease, Manual of High-Risk Pregnancy and Delivery. Available at http//www.nursingconsult.Com/nursing/books. Accessed at 23/5/2014, 613 pm.
[14]  Lewis, S. L., Dirksen, S. R., Heitkemper, M. M., & Bucher L. (2014). Medical-surgical nursing assessment and management of clinical problems. 9th ed., (St. Lois, Elsevier,). 1065-1073.
[15]  Galajdova, L. (2010). Pulmonary dysfunction in acute antepartum pyelonephritis and other pregnancy infections. J Obstet Gynecol, 30, 654-658.
[16]  Simmons, L.E., Rubens, C.E., Darmstadt, G.L. & Gravett, M.G. (2010). Preventing preterm birth and neonatal mortality: exploring the epidemiology, causes, and interventions. Semin Perinatol, 34, 408-415.
[17]  Gravett, M.G., Rubens, C.E. & Nunes, T.M. (2010). Global report on preterm birth and Stillbirth (2 of 7): discovery science. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth, 10 Suppl 1, S2.
[18]  Mohammad N. A., (2013). A study of frequency and some risk Factors of Urinary Tract Infection among Pregnant Women Attending El Sadat Family Health Unit in Suez Governorate. Unpublished thesis, zagazig Un. Fac. Medicine, M.Sc.,
[19]  Sekharan, C., Kumar, D., Kumari, K., and Joachim, C. (2017). Determination of Prevalence of Urinary Tract Infection Among the Pregnant Women with Lower Abdominal Pain. UK Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biosciences Vol. 5(2), 50-55, ISSN: 2347-9442.
[20]  Prakash, P., Krishan, V., Hlufong, L., Agrima, S., and Mahendra, (2016). Predisposing factors and etiology of urinary tract infections in pregnant women. DOAJ.Volume 3, Number 45. pp. 2244-2248(5).
[21]  Almushait, M., Mohammed, H., Al-Harthy, D., Abdullah, A. (2013). Prevalence and Predisposing Factors of Urinary Tract Infections among Pregnant Women in Abha General Hospital International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBARVolume 11, No 1, pp 18-29 ISSN 2307-4531.
[22]  Stenqvist, K., Dahlen-Nilsson, I., Lidin-Janson, G., Lincoln, K., Oden, A., Rignell, S. et al. (1989). Bacteriuria in pregnancy. Frequency and risk of acquisition. Am J Epidemiol; 129: 372-9.
[23]  Higgins, C., (2013). Urine microscopy, culture and sensitivity, understanding laboratory investigations a guide for nurses, midwives and healthcare professionals. 3rd ed., (Oxford, John Wiley & Sons Ltd, UK, 325-337.
[24]  Cheesbrough, M. (2006). Microbiological tests. District Laboratory Practice in Tropical Countries, Part 2, 2ed ed., (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press,) 105 114, 157159, 156, 178179, 187189, 194195.
[25]  Ebidor, L., Toluope, A. and Deborah, O. (2015). Urinary tract infection amongst pregnant in Amassoma, southern Nigeria. AJMR Vol. 9 (6), PP, 355-359.
[26]  Loh, K.Y., and Sivalingam, N. (2007). Urinary Tract Infections In Pregnancy. Malays Fam Physician. 2007; 2(2): 54-57.
[27]  Mokube, M.N., Atashili, J., Halle-Ekane, G.E., Ikomey, G.M., Ndumbe, P.M. (2013). Bacteriuria amongst Pregnant Women in the Buea Health District, Cameroon: Prevalence, Predictors, Antibiotic Susceptibility Patterns and Diagnosis. PLoS ONE 8(8): e71086.
[28]  Habib, F., Hanafi, M., El sagheer, A. (2011). Antenatal care in primary health care centers in Madina, Saudi Arabia, 2009: a cross-sectional study. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, 17(3): 196-202.
[29]  Lamadah, S.M.& Elsaba, H. A.H. (2012). Women's Satisfaction with the Quality of Antenatal Care at the Primary Health Care Centers in Al-Madinah Al-Menawarh, KSA. Life Science Journal; 9(4).
[30]  Worie, N. & Eze, U. A. (2010). Prevalence and Aetiologic Agents of Urinary Tract Infection in Pregnancy in Abakaliki Metropolis. Continental J. Medical Research 4, 18-23.
[31]  Hamdan, Z., Abdel, H. M., Salah, K. A. & Ishag, A. (2011). Epidemiology of UTIS and antibiotics sensitivity among pregnant women at Khartoum North hospital. Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials, 102.
[32]  Wamalwa, P., Omolo, J., & Makokha, A. (2013). Prevalence and risk factors for urinary tract infections among pregnant women. Prime Journal of Social Science (PJSS). 2(12), 524-531.
[33]  Derese, B., Kedir, H., Zelalem Teklemariam, Z.Weldegebreal, F., and Balakrishnan, S. (2016). Bacterial profile of urinary tract infection and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern among pregnant women attending at Antenatal Clinic in Dil Chora Referral Hospital, Dire Dawa, Eastern Ethiopia. Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management:12 251-260.
[34]  Haider, G., Munir, A., & Zehra, N. (2010). Risk factors of urinary tract infection in pregnancy Vol. 60, No. 3, JPMA.
[35]  Rahiman, F.O.M., Balasubramanian, T., Shejina, M., and Musambil, M (2015). A Review on Urinary Tract Infection in Pregnancy. International Journal of Pharma Research & Review, Feb; 4(2): 26-33.
[36]  Turay, A. A., Eke, S. O., Oleghe, P. O., & Ozekhome, M. C. (2014). The prevalence of urinary tract infections among pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic at Ujoelen primary health care center, Ekpoma, Edo State, Nigeria. International Journal of Basic, Applied and Innovative Research; 3(1), 86-94.
[37]  Sharifa, A.A. (2010). Asymptomatic Bacteriuria in Pregnant Women in Jeddah, Western Region of Saudi Arabia: Call for Assessment. JKAU: Med. Sci., 17 (1): 29-42.
[38]  Shazia Parveen, S., Sharada, V., Reddy, Rama Rao, M.V, Janardhan Rao, R. (2011). Uropathogens and their Drug susceptibility patterns among pregnant women in a teaching hospital. Ann. Biol. Res. 2 (5): 516-521.
[39]  El-Sokkary, M. (2011). Prevalence of Asymptomatic Bacteriuria in Antenatal Women with Preterm Labor at an Egyptian Tertiary Center. J. Am. Sci. 7(4): 605-610.
[40]  Alemu, A., Moges, F., Shiferaw, Y., et al. (2012). Bacterial profile and drug susceptibility pattern of urinary tract infection in pregnant women at University of Gondar teaching hospital, in Northwest Ethiopia. BMC Res Notes. 5:197.
[41]  Onuoha, SC, & Fatokun, K. (2014). Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of urinary tract infection (UTI) among pregnant women in Afikpo, Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Am J Life Sci. 2(2): 46-52.
[42]  Eriksson, I. (2011). Urinary tract infection ‐ a serious health problem in old women: Electronic version available at http://umu.diva‐ Printed by Print & Media, Umea University, Umea Sweden.
[43]  Ankur1, G., Namita1, S., Sapna1, G., Anu, P., Neha M. K.., Shams Daniya, SH., Khushi1, a., and Saroj, S. (2015). Prevalence of Asymptomatic Urinary Tract Infections in the Three Trimesters of Pregnancy. Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci., Special Issue-1: 110-117.
[44]  Imade, P.E., Izekor, P.E., Eghafona, N.O., Enabuele, 0.I., Ophori, E. (2010). Asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women. North Am. J. Med. Sci., 2(6): 263 266.
[45]  Kolawole, A.S., Kolawole, O.M., Kanadaki- Olukemi, Y.T., Babatundle, S.K., Dorowade, K.A. C.F. (2009). Prevalence of urinary tract infection (UTI) among patients attending Dalhatu Arf specialist Hospital, Aafia, Nasarawa state, Nigeria IN?t. J. Med. Med. Sci 1(5) 163-167.
[46]  Alvarez, J.R., Fechner AJ, Williams SF, et al. Asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregestational diabetic pregnancies and the role of group B streptococcus. Am J Perinatol 2010; 27: 231.
[47]  Kearney, P. (2011). Urinary tract infection in pregnancy. Article in the Obstetrician and Gynecologist January., Retrieved on 21 March 2016.
[48]  Nitzan, M., Chazan, B., and Saliba, W. (2015). Urinary tract infections in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: the review of prevalence, diagnosis, and management. Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes.; 8: 129-136.
[49]  Chandel, L.R., Kanga, A., Thakur, K., Mokta, K.K., Sood, A., Chauhan, S. (2012). Prevalence of pregnancy-associated asymptomatic bacteriuria: A study was done in a tertiary care hospital. J Obstet Gynecol India 62:511-4.
[50]  Emiru, T., G. Beyene, W. Tsegaye and S. Melaku. (2013). Associated risk factors of urinary tract infection among pregnant women at Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital, Bahir Dar, North West Ethiopia. BMC Res Notes, 25(6): 292.
[51]  El Lawindi, M.I., SAYED, H.A., El Shafei, A.M., Hayek, N.N., Noor, H.H. (2014). Assessment of Urinary Tract Infections’ Risk Factors and Knowledge among Attendees of Theodor Bilharz Research Institute, Giza, Egypt. international Public Health Forum Vol.1 No.1 March.
[52]  Khamis, S.S. (2012). Urinary Tract Infection: Causative Agents, the Relation Between Bacteriuria and Pyuria. World Appl Sci J, 20 (5): 683-686.
[53]  The American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology, (2015). women,s health care physician.
[54]  Michelim, L., Bosi, G.R., &Comparsi, E (2016). Urinary Tract Infection in Pregnancy: Review of Clinical Management. J Clin Nephrol Res 3(1): 1030.