American Journal of Nursing Research
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American Journal of Nursing Research. 2018, 6(1), 30-38
DOI: 10.12691/ajnr-6-1-5
Open AccessArticle

Dietary Intervention Rich in Omega-3 Fatty Acid to Reduce Risk Factors of Cardiovascular Diseases at High Risk Patients

Naglaa El Mokadem1, and Shimaa EL-Sayed Ibraheem1

1Medical Surgical Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing - Menoufia University

Pub. Date: February 28, 2018

Cite this paper:
Naglaa El Mokadem and Shimaa EL-Sayed Ibraheem. Dietary Intervention Rich in Omega-3 Fatty Acid to Reduce Risk Factors of Cardiovascular Diseases at High Risk Patients. American Journal of Nursing Research. 2018; 6(1):30-38. doi: 10.12691/ajnr-6-1-5

Abstract

Background: Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) is the number one killer in developed countries. In Egypt, CVD deaths account for 21.7% of total deaths. Patients at high risk have higher CVD mortality and morbidity following a cardiac event. Hypertension, Diabetes Mellitus (DM), Dyslipdemia and lack of physical activity have been identified as CAD risk factors. Also, inflammatory response and diet have been identified as additional factors that may influence the development of CAD. The relationship between inflammatory reaction and risk of CVD events is consistent and independent of other risk factors. There is evidence about the benefits of omega-3 fatty acids on CVD. Omega-3 fatty acids improve heart health by reducing triglyceride levels, decreasing the growth of atherosclerotic plaques, improving arterial endothelial function, lowering blood pressure, and reducing the risk of thrombosis. Further research is needed to confirm the cardio protective benefits of omega-3 fatty acids. Thus, the purpose of the current study was to examine the effect of dietary intervention rich in omega-3 fatty acids on reducing CAD risk factors for high risk patients. Methods: A quasi experimental (Pre- post test) design was used. Sample: A convenience sample of 100 patients with one or more risk factors of CAD. Setting: the study was conducted in the out-patient clinics at Menoufia University Hospital at Shebein El- Kom City. Tools: a) Interviewing Questionnaire; b) Cardiovascular Risk Assessment Scale (CVRAS); c) Obligatory Exercise Questionnaire; d) Serological level of Interleukin-2 (IL-2), C-reactive proteins, lipid profile and blood glucose level. Results: There was a statistically significant reduction in CAD risk score post intervention (13.50 ± 2.95) compared to pre intervention (22.94 ± 3.13). There was a statistically significant reduction in the inflammatory response, IL-2 (23.55 ± 4.44); C-reactive proteins (2.71 ± 1.39) post intervention compared to pre intervention (31.90 ± 4.80); (4.10 ± 1.38) respectively and physical activity (Paired t- test 10.71, P= 0.05). Conclusion: Omega-3 fatty acids can favorably decrease cardiovascular risk-factor, for primary and secondary prevention of CVD. Recommendation: A diet rich in Omega-3 fatty acids should be included when designing a dietary intervention targeting individuals at high risk for CVD.

Keywords:
omega-3 fatty acid cardiovascular risk dietary intervention inflammatory response physical activity BMI blood glucose blood pressure

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