American Journal of Nursing Research
ISSN (Print): 2378-5594 ISSN (Online): 2378-5586 Website: Editor-in-chief: Apply for this position
Open Access
Journal Browser
American Journal of Nursing Research. 2020, 8(1), 48-59
DOI: 10.12691/ajnr-8-1-6
Open AccessArticle

Effect of Interactive Digital-based Educational Intervention about Digital Eye Strain on the Severity of Eye Complaints, Knowledge and Preventive Ergonomic Practices among Computer Users

Samiha Hamdi Sayed1, , Amel Youssef Abd El Wahed1 and Abeer Abd-El Aziz Mohamed Madian1

1Community Health Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Damanhour University, Egypt

Pub. Date: November 22, 2019

Cite this paper:
Samiha Hamdi Sayed, Amel Youssef Abd El Wahed and Abeer Abd-El Aziz Mohamed Madian. Effect of Interactive Digital-based Educational Intervention about Digital Eye Strain on the Severity of Eye Complaints, Knowledge and Preventive Ergonomic Practices among Computer Users. American Journal of Nursing Research. 2020; 8(1):48-59. doi: 10.12691/ajnr-8-1-6


Background: Digital Eye Strain is major health complains among computer users in the new era of advanced technology with predominant poor knowledge and ergonomics. Aim: Evaluate the effect of interactive digital-based educational intervention about digital eye strain on the severity of eye complaints, knowledge and preventive ergonomic practices among computer users. Design: A randomized control educational trail design was employed (pre-post-test control group). Setting: the study was fulfilled in the main administrative building of Damanhour University/Egypt. Participants: 140 randomly selected computer users’ employees working in the study setting. Tools: four tools were used for data collection. Results: a statistically significant mean difference was found regarding total eye complaints score after one month and three months of the educational intervention. The total knowledge score and the total preventive ergonomic practices score showed a highly statistically significant mean difference after one month and three months of the educational intervention. Moreover, the total workstation design score revealed a statistically significant mean difference after one month and three months Conclusion the research hypothesis was accepted as the interactive digital-based educational intervention about digital eye strain and its preventive ergonomic practices was effective in reducing the studied computer users' reported eye complaints also enhancing their knowledge level about digital eye strain in additionally modifying their preventive ergonomic practices and workstation design. Hence, it is recommended to develop hotlines and web-based educational sites for digital users to help them in facing the rising epidemic of digital eye strain associated with the new era of advanced technology.

digital eye strain interactive digital-based education knowledge ergonomic practices computer users

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  The Vision Council. Eyes Overexposed: The Digital Device Dilemma. Digital Eye Strain Report [Internet]. 2018 [accessed Oct 19, 2018] available from
[2]  Sen A. Richardson S. A study of computer related upper limb discomfort and computer vision syndrome. J. Human Ergol. 2007; 36:45-50.
[3]  Ranasinghe P. Wathurapatha W. Perera Y. Lamabadusuriya D. Kulatunga S. Jayawardana N. Katulanda P. Computer vision syndrome among computer office workers in a developing country: An evaluation of prevalence and risk factors. BMC Research Notes 2016; 9, 150.
[4]  Lurati A. Computer Vision Syndrome: Implications for the Occupational Health Nurse. Workplace health and safety 2017; 66(2): page(s): 56-60.
[5]  American Optometric Association (AOA). Computer Vision Syndrome/Digital Eye Strain [internet] 2017. [Cited 2017 June 25]. Available from:
[6]  Reddy S, Low C, Lim Yet al. Computer vision syndrome: A study of knowledge and practices in university students. Nepal J Ophthalmol. 2013; 5(10): 161-8.
[7]  The institute of Occupational Health and Safety. Computer vision syndrome [internet]. 2019 [accessed Oct 18, 2019] available from
[8]  Gowrisankaran S. Sheedy J. Computer vision syndrome: A review. Work 2015; 52: 303-14.
[9]  Portello JK. Rosenfield M. Bababekova Y. Estrada JM. Leon A. Computer-related visual symptoms in office workers. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics 2012; 32:375-82.
[10]  Hazarika A. Singh K. Computer vision syndrome. SMU Medical Journal. 2014;1(2):132-8.
[11]  World Health Organization (WHO). WHO guideline: recommendations on digital interventions for health system strengthening. 2019 [accessed 2019 Sept 20] available from
[12]  Dessie A. Adane F. Nega A. Wami SD. Chercos D H. Computer Vision Syndrome and Associated Factors among Computer Users in Debre Tabor Town, Northwest Ethiopia. Journal of Environmental and Public Health 2018.
[13]  Lizette M. Carron G. Arvind B. Thaon J. Computer vision syndrome and ergonomic practices among undergraduate university students. International Journal of Clinical Practice 2017; 72(1).
[14]  Alkhaldi G. Hamilton FL. Lau R. Webster R. Michie S. Murray E. The Effectiveness of Prompts to Promote Engagement with Digital Interventions: A Systematic Review. J Med Internet Res 2016; 18(1): e6.
[15]  American Academy of Ophthalmology. Get screen at 40 [Internet]. 2014 [accessed at Oct 19, 2019]. Available from
[16]  Rathore I. Computer Vision Syndrome- An Emerging Occupational Hazard. Research J. Science and Tech. 2017; 9(2): 293-7.
[17]  Hagag S, Abou El-Magd S. The Effect of Ergonomic Intervention Program on Neck Pain among Computer Employees at a Communication Company in Zagazig City. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(10): 503-509].
[18]  Iqbal M. El-Massry A Elagouz M. Elzembely H. Computer Vision Syndrome Survey among the Medical Students in Sohag University Hospital, Egypt. Ophthalmology Research: An International Journal 2018; 8. 1-8.
[19]  Assefa N. Weldemichael D. Alemu H. Anbesse D. Prevalence and associated factors of Computer Vision Syndrome among bank workers in Gondar City, northwest Ethiopia. Clinical Optometry 2017 ;9: 67-79.
[20]  Arif K. Alam M. Computer Vision Syndrome: Review Article. Faridpur Medical college journal 2015; 10(1): 33-5.
[21]  Rosenfield M. Computer vision syndrome: a review of ocular causes and potential treatments. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt 2011; 31(5): 502-15.
[22]  Agarwal S. Goel D. Sharma A. Evaluation of the Factors which contribute to the ocular complaints in computer users. J. Clin. Diagn. Res. 2013; 7(2): 331-5.
[23]  Car L. Soong A. Kyaw B. Chua K. Low-Beer L. and Majeed A. Health professions digital education on clinical practice guidelines: a systematic review by Digital Health Education collaboration. BMC Medicine 2019; 17:139.
[24]  Chauhan S, Dhasmana R, Raj A. Knowledge, awareness and practice of CVS in digital device users. Sudanese J Ophthalmol 2018; 10: 18-24.
[25]  Khatri A. Kharel R. Knowledge, Attitude and practice of Computer Vision Syndrome among medical students and its impact on ocular morbidity. Journal of Nepal Health Research Council 2018; 16(3): 291-6.
[26]  Jomoah I. Work-Related Health Disorders among Saudi Computer Users. Scientific World Journal 2014: 1-28.
[27]  Gabal M. Abd Elaziz KH. Mostafa N. Almadani T. Computer Vision Syndrome and Musculoskeletal Disorders among call center workers of a private company. The Egyptian Journal of Community Medicine 2011; 34(3): 51-7.
[28]  Lertwisuttipaiboon S. Pumpaibool T. Neeser K. Kasetsuwan N. Effectiveness of a participatory eye care program in reducing eye strain among staff computer users in Thailand. Risk Management and Healthcare Policy 2017; 10: 71-80.
[29]  Konarska M. Wolska A. Widerszal-Bazyl M. Bugajska J. Roman-Liu D. Aarås A. The Effect of an Ergonomic Intervention on Musculoskeletal, Psychosocial and Visual Strain of VDT Data Entry Work: The Polish Part of the International Study. International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics 2015; 11(1): 65-76.
[30]  Gupta R. Gour D. Meena M. Interventional Cohort Study for evaluation of Computer Vision Syndrome among Computer Workers. International Journal of Medical Research and Review 2014; 2(1): 40-4.
[31]  Amick B. Menéndez C. Bazzani L. Robertson M. DeRango K. Rooney T. Moore A. A field intervention examining the impact of office ergonomics training and a highly adjustable chair on visual symptoms in a public sector organization. Applied ergonomics. vol. 43, 3 (2012): 625-31.
[32]  Menaria K. Goswami Y Mr. Kumar S. Evaluate the effectiveness of self-instructional module on knowledge regarding computer vision syndrome and its prevention among IT Workers in selected IT centers at Udaipur City, Rajasthan. IOSR Journal of Nursing and Health Science 2018; 7(4): 13-28.
[33]  Ausubel D. The Acquisition and Retention of Knowledge: A Cognitive View. [e book]. [Cited 28 Sept 2019]. New York, U.S.A; Springer-Science, Business Media Dordrecht. 2010.
[34]  Alex K. Effectiveness of Self-Instructional Module on Knowledge on Prevention of Computer Vision Syndrome for Computer Professionals Working in a Selected Software Enterprise at Bangalore, Karnataka. Indian Journal of Applied Research 2015; 5(5): 207-9.
[35]  Sam SH. George R. Effect of SIM on Knowledge Regarding Computer Vision Syndrome and its Prevention among Computer Professionals: A Quasi Experimental Approach. International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR) 2015; 4(12): 1028-31.
[36]  Upadhyaya A. Joshi R. An Evaluation of Knowledge and Attitude amongst Adolescents of Ahmedabad towards Computer Vision Syndrome and Effectiveness of Structured Teaching Programme. International Journal of Health Sciences & Research 2014; 4(10): 191-8.
[37]  Hussein N. Impact of guideline application on the prevention of occupational overuse syndrome for computer users. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Alexandria University; Faculty of nursing. 2012.
[38]  Poonguzhali S. Gowri R. Saleem M. Effectiveness of ergonomics on physical discomfort among computer users at selected IT office in Madurai. Published master thesis, College of Nursing Madurai Medical college 2015. [cited Oct 19, 2019] available from
[39]  Ketola R. Toivonen R. Hakkanen M. Luukkonen R. Takala E-P. Viikari-Juntura E. Effects of ergonomic intervention in work with video display units. Scand J Work Environ Health 2012; 28(1): 18-24.
[40]  Maierle D. Ryan P. Evaluation of satisfaction and use of electronic intervention for behavior change. Comput Inform Nurs. 2011; 29(11): 622-9.