American Journal of Nanomaterials
ISSN (Print): 2372-3114 ISSN (Online): 2372-3122 Website: Editor-in-chief: Apply for this position
Open Access
Journal Browser
American Journal of Nanomaterials. 2015, 3(2), 64-67
DOI: 10.12691/ajn-3-2-3
Open AccessArticle

Measurement of Forced Convective Heat Transfer Coefficient of Low Volume Fraction CuO-PVA Nanofluids under Laminar Flow Condition

Ismat Zerin Luna1, , A. M. Sarwaruddin Chowdhury1, M. A. Gafur2 and Ruhul A. Khan3

1Department of Applied Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, University of Dhaka, Dhaka, Bangladesh

2Pilot Plant and Process Development Center (PP & PDC), Bangladesh Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Dhaka, Bangladesh

3Institute of Radiation and Polymer Technology, Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh

Pub. Date: January 09, 2016

Cite this paper:
Ismat Zerin Luna, A. M. Sarwaruddin Chowdhury, M. A. Gafur and Ruhul A. Khan. Measurement of Forced Convective Heat Transfer Coefficient of Low Volume Fraction CuO-PVA Nanofluids under Laminar Flow Condition. American Journal of Nanomaterials. 2015; 3(2):64-67. doi: 10.12691/ajn-3-2-3


Experimental investigations of forced convective heat transfer coefficient of CuO-PVA nanofluids under uniform and constant heat flux are reported in this paper. Different nanofluid samples at different volume concentrations (0.05, 0.1 & 0.2%) were prepared by dispersing CuO NPs with an average size of 32.50 nm in 4 wt% PVA solution using ultrasonication and magnetic stirring. The forced convective heat transfer coefficient of the CuO-PVA nanofluids was measured with the help of vertical shell-and-tube heat exchanger where spiral circular copper tube was used. All the experiments were performed under laminar conditions ( Re ≤ 2300). The results under laminar flow conditions showed considerable enhancement of convective heat transfer with the use of nanofluids. There was increase in heat transfer coefficient of nanofluids CuO-PVA when compared with their base fluids. The increase is significant even though the concentration is less.

nanofluid shell-and tube heat exchanger forced convective heat transfer coefficient

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


Figure of 5


[1]  Khan, R.A., Beck, S., Dussault, D., Salmieri, S., Bouchard, J. and Lacroix, M. (2013) Mechanical and Barrier Properties of Nanocrystalline Cellulose Reinforced Poly(caprolactone) Composites: Effect of Gamma Radiation. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 129, 3038-3046.
[2]  Ahamed, M., Alhadlaq, H.A., Khan, M., Karuppiah, P. and Al-Dhabi, N.A. (2014) Synthesis, Characterization, and Antimicrobial Activity of Copper Oxide Nanoparticles. Journal of Nanomaterials, 3, 33-42.
[3]  Mustafa, G., Tahir, H., Sultan, M. and Akhtar, N. (2013) Synthesis and Characterization of Cupric Oxide (CuO) Nanoparticles and Their Application for the Removal of Dyes. African Journal of Biotechnology, 12, 6650-6662.
[4]  Kida, T., Oka, T., Nagano, M., Ishiwata, Y. and Zheng, X.G. (2007) Synthesis and Application of Stable Copper Oxide Nanoparticle Suspensions for Nanoparticulate Film Fabrication.
[5]  Kim, Y.S., Hwang, I.S., Kim, S.J., Lee, C.Y. and Lee, J.H. (2008) CuO Nanowire Gas Sensors for Air Quality Control in Automotive Cabin. Journal of Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, 135, 298-303.
[6]  Anandan, S. and Yang, S. (2007) Emergent Methods to Synthesize and Characterize Semiconductor CuO Nanoparticles with Various Morphologies—An Overview. Journal of Experimental Nanoscience, 2, 23-56.
[7]  Zhang, W., Guo, F., Wang, F., Zhao, N., Liu, L. and Li, J. (2014) Synthesis of Quinazolines via CuO Nanoparticles Catalyzed Aerobic Oxidative Coupling of Aromatic Alcohols and Amidines. Journal of Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry, 12, 5752-5766.
[8]  Suleiman, M., Mousa, M., Hussein, A., Hammouti, B., Hadda, T.B. and Warad, I. (2013) Copper (II)-Oxide Nanostructures: Synthesis, Characterizations and Their Applications—Review. Journal of Materials and Environmental Science, 5, 792-807.
[9]  Manimaran, R., Palaniradja, K., Alagumurthi, N., Sendhilnathan, S. and Hussain, J. (2014) Preparation and Characterization of Copper Oxide Nanofluid for Heat Transfer Applications. Applied Nanoscience, 4, 163-167.
[10]  Bhimani V, Ratho P, Sorathiya A. Experimental study of heat transfer enhancement using water based nanofluids as a new coolant for car radiators. International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering 2013;3:295-302.
[11]  P. Sivashanmugam, Application of nanofluids in heat transfer, in: S.N. Kazi (Ed.), An Overview of Heat Transfer, INTECH Publications, Croatia, Chapter 14, 2012, pp. 411-440.
[12]  M. Jalal, H. Meisami, M. Pouyagohar, Experimental study of CuO/water nanofluid effect on convective heat transfer of a heat sink, MiddleEast Journal of Scientific Research 13 (2013) 606-611.
[13]  H. Chang, Y. Wu, X. Chen, M. Kao, Fabrication of Cu based nanofluid with superior dispersion, National Taipei University of Technology Journal 5 (2000) 201-208.
[14]  A.G. Nasibulin, P.P. Ahonen, O. Richard, E.I. Kauppinen, I.S. Altman, Copper and copper oxide nanoparticle formation by chemical vapor nucleation from copper (II) acetylacetonate, Journal of Nanoparticle Research 3 (2001) 383-398.
[15]  G.K. Murugalakshmi, N. Selvakumar, Experimental studies of thermal transport in heat transfer fluids using infrared thermography, International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology 3 (2014) 13-22.
[16]  Kolekar R. An experimental study of the flow boiling of refrigerant-based nanofluids: University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign; 2014.
[17]  Sivashanmugam P. Application of Nanofluids in Heat Transfer: INTECH Open Access Publisher; 2012.
[18]  Liu MS, Lin MC, Huang IT, Wang CC. Enhancement of thermal conductivity with CuO for nanofluids. Chemical engineering & technology 2006; 29:72-7.
[19]  Anandan D, Rajan K. Synthesis and stability of cupric oxide-based nanofluid: A novel coolant for efficient cooling. Asian J Sci Res 2012; 5:218-27.
[20]  Pandey V, Mishra G, Verma S, Wan M, Yadav R. Synthesis and Ultrasonic Investigations of CuO-PVA Nanofluid. 2012.
[21]  International Centre for Diffraction Data (ICCD), Joint Committee on Powder Diffraction Standards, Diffraction Data File No. 05-0661. 2000.
[22]  Radhakrishnan AA, Beena BB. Structural and Optical Absorption Analysis of CuO Nanoparticles. Indian Journal of Advances in Chemical Science 2014;2:158-61.
[23]  Hub B. Calculation of Forced Convection Heat Transfer Coefficients. 2013.
[24]  Asirvatham, Lazarus Godson, et al. "Experimental study on forced convective heat transfer with low volume fraction of CuO/water nanofluid." Energies 2.1 (2009): 97-119.
[25]  Sivakumar A, Alagumurthi N, Senthilvelan T. Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Forced Convective Heat Transfer Coefficient in Nanofluids of Al2O3/Water And CuO/EG in A Serpentine Shaped Microchannel Heat Sink. International Journal of Heat and Technology 2015;33.
[26]  Senthilraja S, Vijayakumar K. Analysis of Heat Transfer Coefficient of CuO/Water Nanofluid using Double Pipe Heat Exchanger. International Journal of Engineering 2013;6:675-80.