American Journal of Medical Sciences and Medicine
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American Journal of Medical Sciences and Medicine. 2016, 4(1), 17-22
DOI: 10.12691/ajmsm-4-1-4
Open AccessArticle

Factors Affecting Adherence to Anti-retroviral Therapy at Kampala International University Teaching Hospital, Bushenyi District, Uganda

Dwoki Wani Buyu1, Conrad Ondieki Miruka2, , Josephat Nyabayo Maniga3 and Albert Nyanchoka Onchweri1

1School of Pharmacy, Kampala International University, P.O BOX 71, Bushenyi, Uganda

2Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biomedical Sciences, Kampala International University, P.O BOX 71, Bushenyi, Uganda

3Department of Microbiology & Immunology, Faculty of Biomedical Sciences, Kampala International University, P.O BOX 71, Bushenyi, Uganda

Pub. Date: March 09, 2016

Cite this paper:
Dwoki Wani Buyu, Conrad Ondieki Miruka, Josephat Nyabayo Maniga and Albert Nyanchoka Onchweri. Factors Affecting Adherence to Anti-retroviral Therapy at Kampala International University Teaching Hospital, Bushenyi District, Uganda. American Journal of Medical Sciences and Medicine. 2016; 4(1):17-22. doi: 10.12691/ajmsm-4-1-4

Abstract

Complex regimens present significant challenges to both patients and health-care providers with respect to anti-retroviral therapy (ART) treatment adherence. Improper adherence leads to poor suppression of HIV replication in infected cells. High level of ART treatment adherence leads to better viral suppression outcomes. Proper maintenance of ART treatment adherence over time remains a problematic area especially in resource limited settings, including sub-Saharan African countries. The western region of Uganda has been noted to have a high prevalence of HIV patients. This study was therefore undertaken to determine the factors associated with non-adherence among the HIV patients on ART in a teaching hospital in south-western Uganda. Findings of the study revealed that forgetting treatment was the most cited factor. Feeling better after some medication period, being too ill to take medication, stigma associated with taking ART medication, alcohol consumption and drug stock out were also identified to be associated to non-adherence among the study participants. Most of the patients in this study (150/255, 58.8%) had good adherence, followed by those who had fair rates of adherence (60/255, 23.5%). Forty five patients (17.6%) had the least adherence level. Findings also showed that females were most likely to miss their medication. The age groups of 30-39 and 40-49 were the most likely not to adhere to medications compared to the other age groups while the 0-19 and above 50 years age groups were most likely not to miss their medication. The separated patients were more likely to miss medication compared to others. Patients who had attended only primary education and those who attended tertiary level of education were most likely to be non-adherent to medication. Deliberate measures need to be taken to cater for the non-adherent patients. Interventions aimed at the high-risk non-adherence groups need to be specifically developed.

Keywords:
ART adherence Uganda factors human immunodeficiency virus

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