American Journal of Medical Sciences and Medicine
ISSN (Print): 2327-6681 ISSN (Online): 2327-6657 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/ajmsm Editor-in-chief: Apply for this position
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
American Journal of Medical Sciences and Medicine. 2019, 7(1), 21-25
DOI: 10.12691/ajmsm-7-1-5
Open AccessArticle

Causes of Low Vision and Blindness in a Leprousarum in Kano State, Nigeria

Okpo Eme1, , Nwakuche P. Ikechukwu2 and Ejukunemu Barbie O.M.2

1Department of Optometry Bayero University Kano / Department of Ophthalmology, Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano, Nigeria

2Department of Optometry, Bayero University Kano, Nigeria

Pub. Date: May 10, 2019

Cite this paper:
Okpo Eme, Nwakuche P. Ikechukwu and Ejukunemu Barbie O.M.. Causes of Low Vision and Blindness in a Leprousarum in Kano State, Nigeria. American Journal of Medical Sciences and Medicine. 2019; 7(1):21-25. doi: 10.12691/ajmsm-7-1-5

Abstract

Low vision includes moderate visual impairment and severe visual impairment based on presenting distance Visual Acuity (VA). Leprosy is a chronic granulomatous disease caused by the Bacillus Mycobacterium leprae. Individuals with visual impairment and blindness due to ocular leprosy; form a severely disadvantaged group because of other disabilities due to the disease, its social stigma and delay in receiving appropriate eye care. The purpose of this study was to ascertain the causes of Low Vision and Blindness in a Leprosarium in Kano State, Nigeria. This study was a Cross sectional descriptive study conducted over a period of six month on 109 Low Vision and Blind patients aged 14 years and above. Ocular examinations of the external and internal structures of the patients were performed. Visual acuity was measured using the logMAR E chart. Of the 109 participants, 51 (46.8%) were females and the mean age was 46.8 ±18. The main causes of low vision and blindness are Cataract (47.0%), leprosy related corneal opacity (45%) and chronic uveitis (28%). Madarosis was the most common ocular lesion in my study accounting for 68.8% of the cases followed by lagophthalmos which occurred in 43.1% of the cases. The relationship between types of leprosy and causes of low vision and blindness (Chi = 3.488; df =6; p = 0.74557) was not Significant (P > 0.05). The low vision and blindness suffered by leprous patients is an additional health burden often overlooked by health service providers. Ocular complications are common and sight threatening in leprosy patients. There is a need for better collaboration between leprosy control and blindness prevention programmes.

Keywords:
low vision blindness leprosy Kano causes

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

References:

[1]  World Health Organization. Cumulative Official Updates to ICD-10. Delhi. Available from:http://www.who.int/classifications/icd/OfficialWHOUpdatesCombined1996 2008 VOLUME1.pdf. Accessed on October 2016.
 
[2]  Wrold Health Organization. Action plan for the prevention of Avoidable blindness and visual ampairment, Geneva, Switzerland.Wold Health Organization; 2009-2013.
 
[3]  D. Pascolini and S.P. Mariotti. Global estimates of visual impairment: 2010. Br J Ophthalmol; 96:614‑618, 2012.
 
[4]  A.L. Gill, Bell, D.R. Gill, G.V. G.B. Wyatt, N.J. Beeching. Leprosy in Britain: 50 year experience in Liverpool. QJM; 98(7): 505-11, 2005.
 
[5]  S.C.Reddy and S.C., B.D. Raj. Ocular involvement in leprosy: a field study of 1004 patients. Int J Ophthalmol; 2(4): 367-372, 2009.
 
[6]  K. Eichelmann, S.E. G, González, J.C., Salas-Alanis, J. Ocampo-Candiani. Leprosy. An Update: Definition, Pathogenesis, Classification, Diagnosis, and Treatment. Actas Dermosifiliogr; 104 (7): 554-563, 2013.
 
[7]  M. Hogewg and J.E.E Keunen. Prevention of blindness in leprosy and the role of the vision 2020 programme. Eye; 19, 1099-1105, 2005.
 
[8]  Choyce D.P. Blindness in leprosy. Tropical Doctor 1973 Jan; 3(1) 16-9.
 
[9]  Leprosy. Global situation 2004 www.who.int/topics/leprosy/en/.
 
[10]  E.Okpo, P.I. Nwakuche and B.O.M. Ejukunemu. Prevalence of Low Vision and Blindness in a Leprosarium in Kano State, Nigeria. JNOA.2018; 20(2): 4.
 
[11]  Kano Municipal L.G.A. Population as per: Federal Republic of Nigeria Official Gazette (15 May 2007). “Legal notice on population of the details of the breakdown of the National and State Provisional Total 2006 census” Retrieved 2007 – 9 – 15.
 
[12]  World Health Organization. Cumulative Official Updates to ICD-10. Delhi. Available from: http://www.who.int/classifications/icd/OfficialWHOUpdatesCombined1996 2008VOLUME1.pdf. Accessed on October 2016.
 
[13]  K.J. Preacher. Calculation for the chi-square test: An interactive calculation tool for chi-square test of goodness of fit and independence (computer soft ware) http://quantps.org, 2001.
 
[14]  C. Mpyet and A. W. Solomon. Prevalence and causes of blindness and low vision in leprosy villages of north eastern Nigeria. Br J Ophthalmol; 89: 417-419, 2005.
 
[15]  Ebeigbej, A. and Kio F. (2011) Ocular leprosy in institutionalized Nigerian patients. Ghana Medical Journal; 45(2):50-53.
 
[16]  K. J. Thompson, G. M. Allardice, G. R. Babu, H.Roberts, W. Kerketta, and A. Kerketta. Patterns of ocular morbidity and blindness in leprosy—a three centre study in Eastern India: Lepr. Rev: 77. 2, 130-140, 2006.
 
[17]  Nguyen, Huu Le. Visual impairment in leprosy patients in northern Viet Nam.CE HJ, 20 (61), 12, 2007.
 
[18]  Eballé, Omgbwa André., Owono, Didier., Book, U.m Alphonse., Bell, Lucienne Assumpta., Mvogo, Ebana Come,. Mba, Nsom. Prevalence andetiologies of visual handicaps in leprosy patients in the south of Cameroon;, Clinical Ophthalmology: 3 195-198, 2009.
 
[19]  Datta, Jyotirmoy. Samanta, Swapan K., Chakraborti, Chandana., Fariduddin, Khandkar. Community Eye Health of the People Affected with Leprosy in India: an Observation p: 7-16, 2009.
 
[20]  S. Resnikoff, D. Pascolin, D., Etya’ale, I. Kocur, R. Pararajasegaram, G. Pokharel, and S. Mariotti. Global data on visual impairment in the year 2002. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 84, 844-851, 2004.
 
[21]  L. Singh, R. Malhotra, Garg P. Bundela, K.S. Dhillon, S. Chawla, B.B. LaL. OcularDisability - WHO Grade 2 in persons affected with leprosy. Indian J Lepr. 86: 1- 6, 2014.
 
[22]  S. Javvadhi, H. Das, S. Agrawal. Pattern and determinants of ocular complications in leprosy patients in eastern Nepal; Nep J Oph; 1(1):2-8, 2009.
 
[23]  S. Junaid, Sabia Rashid Wani, Sherwani Muzaffar and A.R. Nasti. Ocular Manifestations of leprosy -- A Clinical Study, JK-Practitioner; 12(1): 14-17, 2005.
 
[24]  Chowdhury, Sanjoy., Patel, Hitesh., Bhosale, Pratik., Chowdhury, Nilanjan. Cured leprosy: Eyes are still in dark!, IJDR Vol. 05, Issue, 09, pp. 5542-5546, 2015.
 
[25]  Hornblass A. Ocular leprosy in South Vietnam. AMJ Ophthalmol; 75: 478-80.