American Journal of Materials Science and Engineering
ISSN (Print): 2333-4665 ISSN (Online): 2333-4673 Website: Editor-in-chief: Dr. SRINIVASA VENKATESHAPPA CHIKKOL
Open Access
Journal Browser
American Journal of Materials Science and Engineering. 2018, 6(2), 31-36
DOI: 10.12691/ajmse-6-2-2
Open AccessArticle

Investigation of Optical and Electrical Properties of 2-acrylamido-2-methyl Propane Sulfonic Acid/2-Hydroxy Ethyl Methacrylate (AMPS/HEMA) Hydrogel Prepared by Gamma Irradiation

Hamza A. Ghulman1,

1Mechanical Engineering Department, Collage of Engineering and Islamic Architecture, Umm Al-Qura University Makkah, KSA

Pub. Date: November 05, 2018

Cite this paper:
Hamza A. Ghulman. Investigation of Optical and Electrical Properties of 2-acrylamido-2-methyl Propane Sulfonic Acid/2-Hydroxy Ethyl Methacrylate (AMPS/HEMA) Hydrogel Prepared by Gamma Irradiation. American Journal of Materials Science and Engineering. 2018; 6(2):31-36. doi: 10.12691/ajmse-6-2-2


Hydrogels from either 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid (AMPS) or 2-hydroxyl ethyl methacrylate (HEMA) have been prepared by gamma radiation at irradiation dose of 10 kGy. Different volume ratio (v/v) of the starting materials were used to obtain crosslinked hydrogels of variable compositions and crosslink density. UV-VIS absorption spectra indicated that there is a variation in intensity as well as in optical energy gap with different doping levels. Therefore, values of direct and indirect energy gaps were calculated and discussed. The reflectance and transmittance were collected for the as-prepared hydrogels and analyzed in the incident photon energy range from 0.1 to 1.6 eV at a temperature range 300 to 500 K. The optical investigation revealed that the optical transition is directly allowed.

AMPS/HEMA gamma irradiation hydrogel optical and electrical properties

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  N. A. Peppas and J. J. Sahlin, “Hydrogels as mucoadhesive and bioadhesive materials: a review,” Biomaterials, vol. 17, pp. 1553-1561, 1996.
[2]  E. Ruel-Gariepy and J.-C. Leroux, “In situ-forming hydrogels-review of temperature-sensitive systems,” European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, vol. 58, pp. 409-426, 2004.
[3]  L. R. Hirsch, A. M. Gobin, A. R. Lowery, F. Tam, R. A. Drezek, N. J. Halas, et al., “Metal nanoshells,” Annals of biomedical engineering, vol. 34, pp. 15-22, 2006.
[4]  K. Y. Lee and D. J. Mooney, “Hydrogels for tissue engineering,” Chemical reviews, vol. 101, pp. 1869-1880, 2001.
[5]  R. Yamaguchi and S. Sato, “Memory effects of light transmission properties in Polymer-Dispersed-Liquid-Crystal (PDLC) films,” Japanese journal of applied physics, vol. 30, p. L616, 1991.
[6]  R. Yamaguchi, N. Sudo, and S. Sato, “Effects of UV Irradiation in Memory-Type PDLC Films Formed by a Photo-Induced Phase Separation,” Molecular Crystals and Liquid Crystals Science and Technology. Section A. Molecular Crystals and Liquid Crystals, vol. 262, pp. 119-127, 1995.
[7]  S. Chang, C. Lin, and A. Fuh, “Studies of polymer ball type polymer dispersed liquid crystal films,” Liquid crystals, vol. 21, pp. 19-23, 1996.
[8]  S.-J. Chang, Y.-C. Yin, C.-M. Lin, and A. Y. Fuh, “Relaxation time of polymer ball type PDLC films,” Liquid crystals, vol. 21, pp. 707-711, 1996.
[9]  F. Gyselinck, U. Maschke, A. Traisnel, and X. Coqueret, “PDLC films prepared by electron beam and ultraviolet curing: influence of curing conditions on the electro-optical properties,” Liquid Crystals, vol. 27, pp. 421-428, 2000.
[10]  U. Maschke, X. Coqueret, and M. Benmouna, “Electro‐Optical Properties of Polymer‐Dispersed Liquid Crystals,” Macromolecular rapid communications, vol. 23, pp. 159-170, 2002.
[11]  P. Adhikary and S. Krishnamoorthi, “Synthesis, characterization, and application of amylopectin‐graft‐poly (AM‐co‐AMPS),” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 126, pp. E313-E318, 2012.
[12]  P. K. Rastogi, S. Krishnamoorthi, and V. Ganesan, “Synthesis, characterization, and ion exchange voltammetry study on 2‐acrylamido‐2‐methylpropane sulphonic acid and N‐(hydroxymethyl) acrylamide‐based copolymer,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 123, pp. 929-935, 2012.
[13]  P. K. Rastogi, V. Ganesan, and S. Krishnamoorthi, “A promising electrochemical sensing platform based on a silver nanoparticles decorated copolymer for sensitive nitrite determination,” Journal of Materials Chemistry A, vol. 2, pp. 933-943, 2014.
[14]  M. K. Hassan, Y. Mohammed, T. Salem, and A. Hashem, “Prediction of nominal strength of composite structure open hole specimen through cohesive laws,” Int. J. Mech. Mech. Eng. IJMME-IJENS, vol. 12, pp. 1-9, 2012.
[15]  M. Y. Abdellah, M. K. Hassan, and H. A. El-Ainin, “Plasticity and formability controlling of cast iron using thermo-mechanical treatment,” American Journal of Materials Engineering and Technology, vol. 2, pp. 38-42, 2014.
[16]  Y. Mohammed, M. K. Hassan, and A. Hashem, “Analytical model to predict multiaxial laminate fracture toughness from 0 ply fracture toughness,” Polymer Engineering & Science, vol. 54, pp. 234-238, 2014.
[17]  Y. Mohammed, M. K. Hassan, and A. Hashem, “Effect of stacking sequence and geometric scaling on the brittleness number of glass fiber composite laminate with stress raiser,” Science and Engineering of Composite Materials, vol. 21, pp. 281-288, 2014.
[18]  A. Sheikh, E. Silva, L. Moares, L. Antonini, M. Y. Abellah, and C. Malfatti, “Pd-based catalysts for ethanol oxidation in alkaline electrolyte,” Am. J. Min. Metal, vol. 2, pp. 64-69, 2014.
[19]  M. Y. Abdellah, M. S. Alsoufi, M. K. Hassan, H. A. Ghulman, and A. F. Mohamed, “Extended finite element numerical analysis of scale effect in notched glass fiber reinforced epoxy composite,” Archive of Mechanical Engineering, vol. 62, pp. 217-236, 2015.
[20]  M. K. Hassan, M. Y. Abdellah, S. K. Azabi, and W. Marzouk, “Fracture Toughness of a Novel GLARE Composite Material,” 2015.
[21]  K. H. Mohamed, Y. A. Mohammed, S. Azabi, K., and W. W. Marzouk, “Investigation of the Mechanical Behavior of Novel Fiber Metal Laminates,” International Journal of Mechanical & Mechatronics Engineering IJMME-IJENS, vol. 15, pp. 112-118, 2015.
[22]  M. K. Hassan, A. El Ameen, A. F. Mohamed, and M. Y. Abdellah, “Effect of Adding Nanostructured LaGdSmO2-Based Electrolyte on The Electric Performance of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell,” 2017.
[23]  M. Y. Abdellah, H. I. Fathi, A. M. Abdelhaleem, and M. Dewidar, “Mechanical Properties and Wear Behavior of a Novel Composite of Acrylonitrile–Butadiene–Styrene Strengthened by Short Basalt Fiber,” 2018.
[24]  S. Valueva, I. Silinskaya, and A. Kipper, “Optical properties of semidilute solutions of poly-2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid at varied ionic strength of the medium,” Russian journal of applied chemistry, vol. 75, pp. 286-291, 2002.
[25]  K. Nalampang, N. Suebsanit, C. Witthayaprapakorn, and R. Molloy, “Design and preparation of AMPS-based hydrogels for biomedical use as wound dressings,” Chiang Mai Journal of Science, vol. 34, pp. 183-189, 2007.
[26]  A. Mudroch and S. D. MacKnight, Handbook of techniques for aquatic sediments sampling: CRC Press, 1994.
[27]  J. E. Mark, Physical properties of polymers handbook vol. 1076: Springer, 2007.
[28]  A. Tawansi, A. El-Khodary, H. Zidan, and S. Badr, “The effect of MnCl2 filler on the optical window and the physical properties of PMMA films,” Polymer Testing, vol. 21, pp. 381-387, 2002.
[29]  S. Hosseini, “Optical properties of cadmium telluride in zinc-blende and wurzite structure,” Physica B: Condensed Matter, vol. 403, pp. 1907-1915, 2008.
[30]  H. Pathan and C. Lokhande, “Deposition of metal chalcogenide thin films by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method,” Bulletin of Materials Science, vol. 27, pp. 85-111, 2004.
[31]  A. Abdelghany, H. ElBatal, and L. Marei, “Optical and shielding behavior studies of vanadium-doped lead borate glasses,” Radiation Effects and Defects in Solids, vol. 167, pp. 49-58, 2012.