American Journal of Materials Science and Engineering
ISSN (Print): 2333-4665 ISSN (Online): 2333-4673 Website: Editor-in-chief: Dr. SRINIVASA VENKATESHAPPA CHIKKOL
Open Access
Journal Browser
American Journal of Materials Science and Engineering. 2018, 6(1), 1-6
DOI: 10.12691/ajmse-6-1-1
Open AccessArticle

Production of Detergent from Castor Seed and Optimization of Parameters Affecting Its Productivity

Enkuahone Abebe Alamineh1,

1Department of Chemical Engineering, Debre Berhan University, Debre Berhan, Ethiopia

Pub. Date: April 19, 2018

Cite this paper:
Enkuahone Abebe Alamineh. Production of Detergent from Castor Seed and Optimization of Parameters Affecting Its Productivity. American Journal of Materials Science and Engineering. 2018; 6(1):1-6. doi: 10.12691/ajmse-6-1-1


This project work was to carry out with the objective of extraction of oil from castor seeds and its utilization to produce a synthetic detergent. The detergent production was obtained from castor beans by using pre-treatment of castor seed, extraction of castor oil, neutralization and sulphation methods. Chemical extraction method was employed in extracting the oil and the total percent oil yield was 38%. The detergent efficiency was determined as a measure of the foamability of the detergent. The pH tests revealed mildly basic properties. The colour, scent and efficiency of the detergent were improved with the addition of bleaching agent, perfume and foaming agents respectively. The result obtained for the extraction showed an average percent oil extracted was 38%. This value is low relative to the literature; using N-hexane 46% up to 55% oil was extracted. The low yield was attributed to the nature of the seeds and difference in solvent. Moreover, the sulphation and neutralization gave a powered detergent of high enough efficiently as seen from the result of the foamability test. Usually, the efficiency of washing power was assessed through the amount of foam its capability of producing. The presence of persistent foam exemplifies a good detergent. The foam height of 2.5cm persisted for about 4 minutes and this is good relative to the literature 2.6cm with the standard value. The detergent formed was the result of esterification of the castor oil.

detergent castor seed esterification sulphation parameters foamability

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Adeeko, K.A and Ajibola, O.O. (2000). Processing Factors Affecting Yield and Quality of Mechanically Expressed Groundnut Oil, Journal of Agricultural Engineering Issue 45.
[2]  RK Sinott, Coulson and Richardson’ chemical engineering, VOL2, 5th edition.
[3]  Bankole, S.A. (2007). Effect of essential oils from two Nigerian medicinal plants (Azadirachta indica and Morinda lucida) on growth and aflatoxin B1 production in maize grain by a toxigenic Aspergillus flavus, Letters in Applied Microbiology, Volume 24, Issue 3, pages 190-192.
[4]  Liauw, M.Y., Natan, F.A., Widiyanti, P., Ikasari, D., Indraswati, N. and Soetaredj, F. 2008. Extraction of Neem Oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) Using n-Hexane and Ethanol: Studies of Oil Quality, Kinetic and Thermodynamic.
[5]  Gurulingappa, H., Sivramakrishnan, A. and Sujata, V. B. 2002. Three New Tetranortriterpenoids from Neem Seed Oil, J. Nat. Prod., 65 (8), pages 1177-1179.
[6]  Natarajan, V., Venugopal, P.V., Menon, T. 2003. Effect of Azadirachta Indica (neem) on the Growth Pattern of Dermatophytes. Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology. Volume: 21, Issue 2, page 98-101.
[7]  Murugan, K., Babu, R., Jeyabalan, D., Kumar, N., Sivaramakrishnan S.S. 1996. Antipupational Effect of Neem Oil and Neem Seed Kernel Extract against Mosquito Larvae of Anopheles Stephensi (Liston). Journal of Entomological Research. Volume 20, Issue 2, page 137-139.
[8]  Reddy, A.V. and Singh, R. (1998). Fumigant Toxicity of Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) Seed Oil Volatiles against Pulse Beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus Fab. (Col., Bruchidiae). Journal of Applied Entomology, Volume 122, Issue 1-5, page 607-611.
[9]  Gurulingappa, H., Sivramakrishnan, A and Sujata, V.B. (2002). Three New Tetranortriterpenoids from Neem Seed Oil, J. Nat. Prod., 65 (8), page 1177-1179.
[10]  Matt, F. I. 1990. The Efficacy of Seed Oils of Azadirachta Indica A. Juss and Piper Guineense Schum and Thonn on the Control of Callosobruchus maculatus F. International Journal of Tropical Insect Science, Volume 11, Issue 02, page 149-152.
[11]  Ayers, A.L and Scott, C.R. (1952). A Study of Extraction Rates for Cottonseed and Soybean Flakes using n-Hexane and various Alcohol-Hexane mixtures. J. Am. Oil Soc.
[12]  Kelli Mineard, Daniel deB Richter jr, Charlotte, (2010). Neem tree assessment for Socio-economic empowerment in rural burkina faso,Burkin Faso Nicholes School of the environment of DUKE university. 40-47.
[13]  Burt, S. (2004). Essential oils: their antimicrobial properties and potential application in foods-A review. International Journal of Food Microbiology. 94: 223-253.
[14]  RK Sinott, Coulson & Richardson's Chemical Engineering, (2003). Vol. 6.
[15]  Maria Yuliana Liauw, F. A. Natan, P. Widiyanti, D. Ikasari, N. Indraswati and F. E. Soetaredjo, (2008). Extraction of neem oil (azadirachta indica a. juss) using n-hexane and ethanol: ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Science. 3, 2-4.
[16]  Philip S.J, (1995), Steven V. Ley (1987), E. David Morgan, volume 1, the chemistry of neem tree, the neem tree.
[17]  Debjit Bhowmik, Chiranjib1, Jitender Yadav1, K. K. Tripathi1, K. P. Sampath Kumar. J. (2010), Herbal Remedies of Azadirachta indica andits Medicinal Application. Chem. Pharm. Res., 2(1): 62-72.