American Journal of Materials Science and Engineering
ISSN (Print): 2333-4665 ISSN (Online): 2333-4673 Website: Editor-in-chief: Dr. SRINIVASA VENKATESHAPPA CHIKKOL
Open Access
Journal Browser
American Journal of Materials Science and Engineering. 2017, 5(1), 28-36
DOI: 10.12691/ajmse-5-1-4
Open AccessArticle

Synthesis and Characterization of Chitosan/Gum Arabic Nanoparticles for Bone Regeneration

Chinenye Appolonia Ibekwe1, , Grace Modupe Oyatogun1, Temitope Ayodeji Esan2 and Kunle Michael Oluwasegun1

1Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria

2Department of Restorative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria

Pub. Date: September 21, 2017

Cite this paper:
Chinenye Appolonia Ibekwe, Grace Modupe Oyatogun, Temitope Ayodeji Esan and Kunle Michael Oluwasegun. Synthesis and Characterization of Chitosan/Gum Arabic Nanoparticles for Bone Regeneration. American Journal of Materials Science and Engineering. 2017; 5(1):28-36. doi: 10.12691/ajmse-5-1-4


Chitosan /gum arabic nanoparticles (C/G)have been prepared by ionic gelation method. This was with a view to enhance the mechanical properties and its application as bone graft scaffold. The cowry shells were washed, dried, pulverized and subsequently sieved with mesh No. 60, size 250 µm. It was deproteinized, Chitin was isolated from the synthesis by demineralising in 0.5 M Hydrochloric acid, and subsequently deacetylated by the addition of 40% (W/V) of Sodium hydroxide to synthesize chitosan. The raw chitosan was purified using 2% (v/v) acetic acid solution. The synthesized chitosan and gum arabic, a product of Acacia tree, were used to prepare chitosan/gum arabic nanoparticles by ionic gelation method. Mechanical characterization was carried out on the synthesized material using universal testing machine. Analysis of the chemical composition was carried out using Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) and X-Ray fluorescence, (XRF). Furthermore, the morphology of the materials were studied using scanning electron microscopy, SEM and the dimension of the nanoparticles were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Finally, an attempt was made to ascertain its suitability for bone regeneration. The FTIR spectra result confirmed that the nanoparticle was actually a derivative of chitosan by the observed shift in the peak 3462 to 3404cm-1. There is presence of a new peak at 1636 cm-1 and 1473 cm-1. Peak observed at 1080 cm-1, 860cm-1 and 712 cm-1 on C/G nanoparticles spectrum were similar to the native chitosan spectrum which shows that there was no change in the main backbone of chitosan structure. The scanning electron microscopy () study revealed chitosan as polymeric rods, while the chitosan /gum arabic nanoparticles in aggregate. The TEM was to confirm nanoparticles of average size of 200nm. The ultimate compressive strength was found to have increased by 78.21%, the Young Modulus by 54.4 % and percentage elongation by 7%. In overall assessment, mechanical properties of the chitosan/gum arabic nanoparticles were better than native chitosan. The study concluded that crosslinking of chitosan with gum arabic to form its nanoparticles derivative improved the mechanical properties of chitosan and consequently its application as a bone graft substitute for bone regeneration.

Chitosan gum arabic nanoparticles bone graft scaffold bone regeneration

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


Figure of 7


[1]  Costa-Pinto, A., Reis R., & Neves N.M., (2011). “Scaffolds Based Bone Tissue Engineering: The Role of Chitosan,” Tissue Engineering, Part B, Volume 17, no. 5, Pp.1-18.
[2]  Torres, J. Tamimi F., Alkhraist M, Carlos J,. Prados-Frutos and Lopez- Cabarcos (2011). E. Bone Subtitutes, implant Dentistry- The most promising Discipline of Dentistry, prof. IIser Turkyilmaz (Ed.), InTech, Vol. 4 Pp. 91-108.
[3]  Polo-Corrales, L., Latorre-Esteves, M., and Ramirez-Vick, J. (2014). “Scaffold Design for Bone Regeneration,” J Nanosci Nanotechnol, Vol. 14, no. 1, Pp. 15-56.
[4]  Dimitriou, R., Jones, E., McGonagle, D. and Giannoudis, P. (2011). “Bone Regeneration: Current Concepts and Future Directions,” BMC medicine, Vol. 9, no. 66, Pp.1-10.
[5]  Sandor, G., Lindholm, T. and Clokie, C., (2003). Bone Regeneration of the Craniomaxillofacial and Dento-alveolar Skeletons in Framework of Tissue Engineering. Topic on Tissue Engineering (2003): Ashammakhi, N., and Ferretti, P., eds university of Oulu, (2003) chapter 7, Pp. 1-46.
[6]  O'Brien, F. (2011). “Biomaterials and scaffolds for Tissue Engineering,” Material today, Vol. 14, Pp. 88-95.
[7]  Motamedia, S. Hosseinpour, S. Ahsale M., and Khojasteh, A. (2015). “Smart scaffolds in bone tissue engineering: A systematic review literature. worlde J stem Cells, Vol. 7, no. 3, Pp. 657-668.
[8]  Rodriguez-vazquez, M., Vega-Ruiz, B., Ramos-Zuniga, R., Saldana-Koppel, D. A., and Quinones-Olvera, L. F., (2015). ”Chitosan and Its Potential Use as a Scaffold for Tissue Engineering in Regenerative Medicine” BioMed Research International, Vol. 2015, Pp. 1-15.
[9]  Mota, J., Yu N., Caridade S. G., Luz, G. M., Gomes E. M., Reis R. L., Jansen J. A., Walboomers X. F., Mano J. F. (2012). “Chitosan/bioactive Glass Nanoparticle composite membranes for periodontal regeneration” Acta Biomaterialia, Vol. 8, Pp 4173-4180.
[10]  Ahmed, S. and Ikram, S. (2016). “Chitosan Based Scaffolds and Their Applications in Wound Healing. Achievements in the Life Science, Vol. 10, Pp. 27-37.
[11]  Sailakshmi, G. Mitra, T., Chatterjee, S. and Gnanamani A. (2013). “Engineering Chitosan using α,ώ Dicarboxylic acids-An approach to improve mechanical strength and thermal stability,” Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology, no. 4, Pp. 151-164.
[12]  Montenegro, M. A., Boieroi, Valle L. and Borsarelli C.D., (2012): “Gum arabic more than an Edible Emulsifier, products and Applications of Biopolymers,” Dr. Johan Verbeek (Ed.), InTech, Available from: 3-27.
[13]  Leloni, J. K., Jumba I.O., Keter J.K., Chemuku W. and Oduor F.D.O. (2010). Assessment of Physical Properties of Gum Arabic from Acacia Senegal Varieties in Baringo District, Kenya.
[14]  Azeez, O. S. (2005). “Decolourization of Gum Arabic Using Activated Charcoal”. Leonardo Journal of Sciences, Pp. 23-32.
[15]  Avadi, M.R., Sadeghi, M. M., Dounighi, N. M., Dinarand, R., Atyabi , F. and Rafiee-Tehrani, M., (2011). “Ex Vivo Evaluation of Insulin Nanoparticles using Chitosan and Gum Arabic.” International Scholarly Research, Vol. 2011, Pp.1- 6.
[16]  Zhao, L., Shi, L. Z., Chen, J., Shi, D., Yang, J. and Tang, Z. (2011). “Preparation and Application of Chitosan Nanoparticles and Nano fibers,” Brazilian Journal of chemical Engineering, Vol. 28, No. 03, Pp. 353-362.
[17]  Lanka D. and Mittapally (2016). “Preparation and Application of Chitosan Nanoparticles: A Brief,” Research and Reviews: Journal of Material Science, Pp. 1-5.
[18]  Anil, S., Al-Sulaimani, A.F., Beeran, A. E., Chalisserry, E. P., Varma, P. R. and Al-Amri, M. D. (2015). Drug Delivery Systems in Bone Regeneration and Implant Dentistry. Current concept in dental implantology, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabic INTECH Chapter 10: Pp.239-264.
[19]  Sailaja, A., Amareshwar, P. and Chakravarty, P. (2010). Different Techniques used for the Preparation of Nanoparticles using Natural Polymers and their Application. International Journal of pharmaceutical science, Vol. 3, no. 2, page 1-8.
[20]  Kafshgari W. H, Khorram W., Khodoost W. and Khavari S. (2011). “Reinforcement of Chitosan Nanoparticles Obtained by an Ionic cross-linking process,” Iranian Polymer Journal, Pp 445-456.
[21]  Ikeda, T., Ikeda, K., Yamamoto, K. Ishizaki, H. Yoshizawa Y., Yanagiguchi, K. Yamada, S. and Hayashi, (2014). “Fabrication and Characteristic of Chitosan Sponge as a Tissue Scaffold” BioMed Research International volume, 2014 (2014), Pp. 1-8.
[22]  Yildirim, O. (2004). “Preparation and Characterization of Chitosan/ Calcium Phosphate based Composite Biomaterials”. Masters Research Work, Master of Science and Engineering, Institute of Technology Zmir, Turkey.
[23]  Al-Remawi, M., (2012). “Properties of Chitosan Nanoparticles Formed Using Sulphate Anions as Crosslinking Bridges,” American Journal of Applied Science, Vol. 9, no. 7, Pp. 1091-1100.
[24]  Esquivel, R., Juarez, Almada, M., Ibarra, J. and Valdez, M. A. (2015). “Synthesis and Characterization of New Thiolated Chitosan Nanoparticles Obtained by Ionic Gelation Method,” International Journal of polymer Science, Vol. 2015, Pp. 1-18.
[25]  Kemp, M. M. and Linhardt, R. J. (2010). Heparin-based Nanoparticles. John Wiley and Sons, Inc, Vol. 2, Pp. 77-87.
[26]  Zvezdova D., (2010). “Synthesis and characterization of chitosan from marine sources in Black sea,” НАУЧНИ ТРУДОВЕ НА РУСЕНСКИЯ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ - 2010, том 49, серия 9.1, Pp. 65-69.
[27]  Puvvada, Y., Vankayalapati, S. and Sukhavasi, S. (2012). “Extracion of Chitin from Exoskeleton of Shrimp for Application in the Pharmaceutical Industry,” International Current Pharmaceutical Journal, Vol. 1, no. 9, Pp. 258-263.
[28]  Mitra, T., Sailakshmi, G. Gnanamni, A. and Mandal, A. B. (2013). “Studies on Cross-linking of Succinic Acid with Chitosan/Collagen,” Material Research, Vol. 16, no. 4, Pp. 755-765.
[29]  Islam, M., Masum, S., Rahman, M., Molla, I., Shaikh, A. and Roy, S. K. (2011). “Preparation Of Chitosan from Shrimp Shell and Investigation of Its Properties” International Journal of Basic and Applied Science, Vol. 11, no. 01, Pp. 77-80.
[30]  Nwe, N., Furuike, T. and Tamura, H. (2009). “The Mechanical and Biological Properties of Chitosan Scaffolds for Tissue Regeneration Templates are Significantly Enhanced by Chitosan,” Materials, Vol. 2009, no. 2, Pp. 374-398.
[31]  Cui, X., Zhang, B., Wang, Y. and Gao, Y. (2008). “Effects Of Chitosan-coated Pressed Calciumsulfate Pellet Combined with Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 On Restoration of Segmental Bone Defect,” Journal of Craniofacial Surgery, Vol. 19, Pp. 459-465.
[32]  Lee, K.Y., Ha, W.S. and Park, W.H. (1995). “Blood Compatibility and Biodegradability of Partially N-acylated Chitosan Derivatives,” Biomaterials, Vol. 16, Pp. 1211-1216.
[33]  Klokkevold, P.R and Newman, M.G (2000). “Current Status of Dental Implants: A periodontal perspective,” International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Implants, Vol. 15, Pp. 55-65.
[34]  Lee, Y.M, Park, Y.J., Lee, S.J., Ku, Y., Han, S,B., Choi, S.M., et al (2000). ”Tissue Engineered Bone Formation Using Chitosan/tricalcium Phosphate Sponges” Journal of Periodontology, Vol. 71, Pp. 410-417.
[35]  Mizuno, K., Yamamura, K., Yano, K., Osada, T., Saeki, S., Takimoto, N. (2003). “Effect of chitosan film containing basic fibroblast growth factor on wound healing in genetically diabetic mice,” Journal of Biomedical Materials Research, Part A, no. 64, Pp. 177-181.
[36]  Ueno, H., Murakami, M., Okumura, M., Kadosawa, T., Uede, T. and Fujinaga, T. (2001). “Chitosan accelerates the production of osteopontin from polymorphonuclear leukocyte,”] Biomaterials, Vol. 22, Pp. 1667-1673.
[37]  Ueno, H., Nakamura, F., Murakami, M., Okumura, M., Kadosawa, T. and Fujinag, T. (2001). “Evaluation Effects of Chitosan for the Extracellular Matrix Production by Fibroblasts and the Growth Factors Production by Macrophages,” Biomaterials, Vol. 22, Pp. 2125-2130.
[38]  Chevrier, A., Hoemann, C.D., Sun, J. and Buschmann, M.D. (2007). “Chitosanglycerol Phosphate/blood Implants Increase Cell Recruitment, Transient Vascularization and Subchondral Bone Remodeling in Drilled Cartilage Defects,” Osteoarthritis Cartilage, Vol. 15, Pp. 316-327.
[39]  Luo, J., Sun, M., Kang, Q., Peng, Y., Jiang, W., Luu, H.H., Luo, Q., Park, J., Li, Y., Haydon, R.C., Hei, T. (2005). “Gene Therapy for Bone Regeneration”, Current Gene therapy, Vol. 5, Pp. 167-179.
[40]  Landsman, R. and Reddi, A. H., (1986). “Chemotaxis of Muscle Derived Mesenchymal Cells o Bone-Inductive Proteins of Rat,” Calcified Tissue International, Vol. 39, Pp. 259-262.
[41]  Roza G., (2016). “Histology of Bone,” Gellman H., ed. Medscape Pp1-9.