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American Journal of Medicine Studies

ISSN (Print): 2333-8881

ISSN (Online): 2333-889X


Content: Volume 2, Issue 1


Study of Anthranylic Acid Derivatives: Mefenamic Acid and Its Various Analogues

1Department of Pharmacy, GRD (PG) IMT, Dehradun, India

American Journal of Medicine Studies. 2014, 2(1), 24-30
DOI: 10.12691/ajms-2-1-4
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Mohammad Asif. Study of Anthranylic Acid Derivatives: Mefenamic Acid and Its Various Analogues. American Journal of Medicine Studies. 2014; 2(1):24-30. doi: 10.12691/ajms-2-1-4.

Correspondence to: Mohammad  Asif, Department of Pharmacy, GRD (PG) IMT, Dehradun, India. Email:


Anthranylic acid derivatives are direct structural analogs of salicylic acid derivatives. They possess analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic activity. They are similar to pyrazolones in terms of analgesic and antipyretic activity, yet they exceed the anti-inflammatory activity of salicylates. The mechanism of action of this series of nonsteroid, anti-inflammatory analgesics is not conclusively known. One of the early advances in the search for nonnarcotic analgesics was centered in the N-arylanthranilic acids. The outstanding characteristic of mefenamic acid is primarily anti-inflammatory , and secondarily, some possess analgesic properties.



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Genotype and Allele Frequencies of MDR-1 Gene Polymorphism in Jordanian and Sudanese Populations

1Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine and Medical Sciences, Arabian Gulf University, Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain

2Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt

3Department of Medical Biochemistry, College of Medicine and Medical Sciences, Arabian Gulf University, Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain

4Central Laboratory, Ministry of Science and Technology, Khartoum, Sudan

5College of Animal Production Science and Technology, Sudan University of Science and Technology, Khartoum, Sudan

American Journal of Medicine Studies. 2014, 2(1), 19-23
DOI: 10.12691/ajms-2-1-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Abdel Halim Salem, Muhalab Ali, Amir Ibrahim, Mohamed Ibrahim. Genotype and Allele Frequencies of MDR-1 Gene Polymorphism in Jordanian and Sudanese Populations. American Journal of Medicine Studies. 2014; 2(1):19-23. doi: 10.12691/ajms-2-1-3.

Correspondence to: Abdel  Halim Salem, Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine and Medical Sciences, Arabian Gulf University, Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain. Email:


The aim of this study was to determine the genotype and allele frequencies of MDR1 gene C3435T polymorphism in Jordanian and Sudanese populations, and to compare them with the frequencies established in various ethnic groups. Genotyping was carried out on 116 unrelated Jordanian and 131 Sudanese subjects. The genotypes of polymorphic position C3435T were determined by PCR-RFLP assay. Results showed that 20.7% of the studied Jordanian subjects were homozygous for the CC genotype, 51.7% were heterozygous for the CT genotype and 27.6% were homozygous for the TT genotype. Among Sudanese subjects, the genotype frequencies were: CC 52.7%, CT 42.0% and TT 5.3%. The frequencies of the 3435T variant in the MDR-1 Gene in Jordanians and Sudanese were found to be 0.534 and 0.263, respectively. According to the distribution of the C3435T SNP, Jordanians were resemble Asians and Europeans but were different significantly from Sudanese, while Sudanese were similar to Africans. In conclusion, the observed distribution of the C3435T SNP in the Jordanian and Sudanese populations was within the range detected in other populations. The data obtained may give the basis for predicting effects of drugs that are substrates for MDR-1 in Jordanian and Sudanese populations and may be useful for individualized therapy of some diseases.



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Effect of Combination between Methotrexate and Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors on Transplantable Tumor Model

1Pharmacology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt

American Journal of Medicine Studies. 2014, 2(1), 12-18
DOI: 10.12691/ajms-2-1-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Ahmed M Kabel. Effect of Combination between Methotrexate and Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors on Transplantable Tumor Model. American Journal of Medicine Studies. 2014; 2(1):12-18. doi: 10.12691/ajms-2-1-2.

Correspondence to: Ahmed  M Kabel, Pharmacology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt. Email:


Solid Ehrlich carcinoma is an undifferentiated tumor used in tumor studies. Methotrexate is an antimetabolite used in treatment of cancer, autoimmune diseases and induction of abortion. Valproic acid is used as anticonvulsant and is under investigation for treatment of cancer. The aim of this work was to study the effect of each of methotrexate and valproic acid alone and in combination on solid Ehrlich tumor in mice. Fifty albino mice were divided into five equal groups: Control untreated group, solid Ehrlich carcinoma, solid Ehrlich carcinoma + methotrexate, solid Ehrlich carcinoma + valproic acid, solid Ehrlich carcinoma + methotrexate + valproic acid. Tumor volume, tissue catalase, glutathione reductase, malondialdehyde, cholesterol and tumor necrosis factor-α were determined. A part of the tumor was examined for histopathological and immunohistochemical study. Methotrexate or valproic acid alone or in combination induced significant increase in tissue catalase and glutathione reductase with significant decrease in tumor volume, tissue malondialdehyde, cholesterol and tumor necrosis factor-α and alleviated the histopathological changes with significant increase in p53 expression and apoptotic index compared to solid Ehrlich carcinoma group. The combination of methotrexate and valproic acid has a better effect than each of methotrexate or valproic acid alone against solid Ehrlich tumor in mice.



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Immunogenicity of Leishmania Donavani Centrin-3 Vaccines

1Department of Medical Laboratory, Faculty of Medical Technology, Sert University, Libya

2College of Arts and Science, School of Science & Technology, Nottingham Trent University

American Journal of Medicine Studies. 2014, 2(1), 1-11
DOI: 10.12691/ajms-2-1-1
Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Fathiya AA Steal, Selman A Ali. Immunogenicity of Leishmania Donavani Centrin-3 Vaccines. American Journal of Medicine Studies. 2014; 2(1):1-11. doi: 10.12691/ajms-2-1-1.

Correspondence to: Selman  A Ali, College of Arts and Science, School of Science & Technology, Nottingham Trent University. Email:


Leishmaniasis is a parasitic protozoal disease affecting humans and animals with phlebotomine sand flies as intermediate vectors. There is no effective vaccine in use against this parasite and production relies on finding potent immunogenic antigens with long lasting memory response. As part of searching for new Leishmania antigens of a potential vaccine application, the immunogenicity of L. donovani centrin-3 (Ldcen-3) was investigated in a Balb/c model. Ldcen-3 is a calcium binding protein that has been shown to be involved in duplication and segregation of the centrosome in higher and lower eukaryotes. The Ldcen-3 gene was cloned in various vectors and coated on gold particles for gene gun immunisation. Significant protection was induced by immunisation with 1μg DNA of pcDNA3.1-Ldcen-3 or pCRT7/CT-TOPO-Ldcen-3 constructs. Protection against challenge with live parasite was vector dependent where better protection was induced by pCRT7/CT-TOPO-Ldcen-3. Splenocytes from Balb/c mice immunised with pcDNA3.1-Ldcen-3 or pCRT7/CT-TOPO-Ldcen-3 had a potent CTL response against DC targets loaded with or tumour cells transfected with Ldcen-3 plasmid construct.



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