American Journal of Microbiological Research
ISSN (Print): 2328-4129 ISSN (Online): 2328-4137 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/ajmr Editor-in-chief: Apply for this position
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2018, 6(4), 115-123
DOI: 10.12691/ajmr-6-4-1
Open AccessArticle

Extraction of Phytochemicals from Eucalyptus Spp. & Withania Somnifera and Their Biological Testing

Praveen Kumar Gupta1, , Priyanka V1, Lingayya Hiremath1, S Narendra Kumar1 and Ajeet Kumar Srivastava1

1Department of Biotechnology, R.V College of Engineering, Bangalore-560059, India

Pub. Date: July 31, 2018

Cite this paper:
Praveen Kumar Gupta, Priyanka V, Lingayya Hiremath, S Narendra Kumar and Ajeet Kumar Srivastava. Extraction of Phytochemicals from Eucalyptus Spp. & Withania Somnifera and Their Biological Testing. American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2018; 6(4):115-123. doi: 10.12691/ajmr-6-4-1

Abstract

Disease incidence and prevalence is increasing in developing countries leading to high mortality and morbidity rates. Since most of the developing countries rely on traditional plant based medicine, there is huge demand for identifying the bioactive compounds from plant origin with medicinal properties owing to their safety, availability and reduced side effects. This project focuses on extraction of two different phytochemicals from Eucalyptus Spp and Withania Somnifera. The present study narrows down on extraction of sideroxylonals from Eucalyptus Spp and withaferin A from Withania Somnifera. Formulated phloroglucinol compounds (FPC) of Eucalyptus Spp includes Sideroxylonal which possess strong antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticancer properties. Withaferin A belonging to withanoloides of Withania Somnifera has potential antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties. Both the bioactive compounds are extracted from residual foliage from Eucalyptus Spp and Withania Somnifera. The extraction is optimized by using different solvents or combination of solvents in various proportions to increase yield. The extracted compound is studied for its antimicrobial and antioxidant activity and characterized using FTIR analysis, TLC and HPLC analysis. Antioxidant assay performed by DPPH method and phosphomolybdenum method showed similar IC50 values for both extracts. Antimicrobial assay performed using agar disc diffusion method showed potential antimicrobial activity in both the extracts.

Keywords:
phytochemicals Formulated phloroglucinol compounds sideroxylonal withaferin A FTIR HPLC TLC

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

References:

[1]  Soliman, F. M., Fathy, M. M., Salama, M. M., Al-Abd, A. M., Saber, F. R., & El-Halawany, A. M. (2014). Cytotoxic activity of acyl phloroglucinols isolated from the leaves of Eucalyptus cinerea F. Muell. ex Benth. cultivated in Egypt. Scientific reports, 4, 5410.
 
[2]  Vuong, Q. V., Chalmers, A. C., Jyoti Bhuyan, D., Bowyer, M. C., & Scarlett, C. J. (2015). Botanical, phytochemical, and anticancer properties of the Eucalyptus species. Chemistry & biodiversity, 12(6), 907-924.
 
[3]  Eschler, B. M., Pass, D. M., Willis, R., & Foley, W. J. (2000). Distribution of foliar formylated phloroglucinol derivatives amongst Eucalyptus species. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, 28(9), 813-824.
 
[4]  Rai, M., Jogee, P. S., Agarkar, G., & Santos, C. A. D. (2016). Anticancer activities of Withania somnifera: Current research, formulations, and future perspectives. Pharmaceutical biology, 54(2), 189-197.
 
[5]  Verma, S. K., & Kumar, A. (2011). Therapeutic uses of Withania somnifera (ashwagandha) with a note on withanolides and its pharmacological actions. Asian J Pharm Clin Res, 4(1), 1-4.
 
[6]  Mirjalili, M. H., Moyano, E., Bonfill, M., Cusido, R. M., & Palazón, J. (2009). Steroidal lactones from Withania somnifera, an ancient plant for novel medicine. Molecules, 14(7), 2373-2393.
 
[7]  Vuong, Q. V., Hirun, S., Chuen, T. L., Goldsmith, C. D., Munro, B., Bowyer, M. C., ... & Scarlett, C. J. (2015). Physicochemical, antioxidant and anti-cancer activity of a Eucalyptus robusta (Sm.) leaf aqueous extract. Industrial Crops and Products, 64, 167-174.
 
[8]  Sidana, J., Singh, S., Arora, S. K., Foley, W. J., & Singh, I. P. (2011). Formylated phloroglucinols from Eucalyptus loxophleba foliage. Fitoterapia, 82(7), 1118-1122.
 
[9]  Bhuiyan, M. A. R., Hoque, M. Z., & Hossain, S. J. (2009). Free radical scavenging activities of Zizyphus mauritiana. World journal of agricultural sciences, 5(3), 318-322.
 
[10]  Dezsi, Ș., Bădărău, A. S., Bischin, C., Vodnar, D. C., Silaghi-Dumitrescu, R., Gheldiu, A. M., ... & Vlase, L. (2015). Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities and phenolic profile of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. and Corymbia ficifolia (F. Muell.) KD Hill & LAS Johnson leaves. Molecules, 20(3), 4720-4734.
 
[11]  Foley, W. J., & Lassak, E. V. (2004). The potential of bioactive constituents of Eucalyptus foliage as non-wood products from plantations. Barton ACT, Australia: Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation.
 
[12]  Sangwan, R. S., Chaurasiya, N. D., Lal, P., Misra, L., Tuli, R., & Sangwan, N. S. (2008). Withanolide A is inherently de novo biosynthesized in roots of the medicinal plant Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera). Physiologia plantarum, 133(2), 278-287.
 
[13]  Popescu, C. M., Popescu, M. C., Singurel, G., Vasile, C., Argyropoulos, D. S., & Willfor, S. (2007). Spectral characterization of eucalyptus wood. Applied spectroscopy, 61(11), 1168-1177.
 
[14]  Wallis, I. R., Herlt, A. J., Eschler, B. M., Takasaki, M., & Foley, W. J. (2003). Quantification of sideroxylonals in Eucalyptus foliage by high‐performance liquid chromatography. Phytochemical Analysis, 14(6), 360-365.
 
[15]  Abouzid, S. F., El-Bassuony, A. A., Nasib, A., Khan, S., Qureshi, J., & Choudhary, M. I. (2010). Withaferin A production by root cultures of Withania coagulans. International Journal of Applied Research in Natural Products, 3(1), 23-27.
 
[16]  Behbahani, B. A., Yazdi, F. T., Mortazavi, A., Zendeboodi, F., & Gholian, M. M. (2013). Effect of aqueous and ethanolic extract of Eucalyptus camaldulensis L. Journal of Paramedical Sciences, 4(3).
 
[17]  Patil, V. A., & Nitave, S. A. (2014). A review on Eucalyptus globulus: A divine medicinal herb. World journal of pharmacy and pharmaceutical sciences, 3(6), 559-567.
 
[18]  Shang, Z. C., Yang, M. H., Liu, R. H., Wang, X. B., & Kong, L. Y. (2016). New Formyl Phloroglucinol Meroterpenoids from the Leaves of Eucalyptus robusta. Scientific reports, 6, 39815.
 
[19]  Sidana, J., Foley, W. J., & Singh, I. P. (2012). Isolation and quantitation of ecologically important phloroglucinols and other compounds from Eucalyptus jensenii. Phytochemical analysis, 23(5), 483-491.
 
[20]  Bhuyan, D. J., Sakoff, J., Bond, D. R., Predebon, M., Vuong, Q. V., Chalmers, A. C., ... & Scarlett, C. J. (2017). In vitro anticancer properties of selected Eucalyptus species. In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology-Animal, 53(7), 604-615.
 
[21]  Wallis, I. R., & Foley, W. J. (2005). The rapid determination of sideroxylonals in Eucalyptus foliage by extraction with sonication followed by HPLC. Phytochemical Analysis, 16(1), 49-54.
 
[22]  Patil, V. A., & Nitave, S. A. (2014). A review on Eucalyptus globulus: A divine medicinal herb. World journal of pharmacy and pharmaceutical sciences, 3(6), 559-567.
 
[23]  Shang, Z. C., Yang, M. H., Liu, R. H., Wang, X. B., & Kong, L. Y. (2016). New Formyl Phloroglucinol Meroterpenoids from the Leaves of Eucalyptus robusta. Scientific reports, 6, 39815.
 
[24]  McKenna, M. K., Gachuki, B. W., Alhakeem, S. S., Oben, K. N., Rangnekar, V. M., Gupta, R. C., & Bondada, S. (2015). Anti-cancer activity of withaferin A in B-cell lymphoma. Cancer biology & therapy, 16(7), 1088-1098.
 
[25]  Kaul, S. C., Ishida, Y., Tamura, K., Wada, T., Iitsuka, T., Garg, S., ... & Terao, K. (2016). Novel methods to generate active ingredients-enriched Ashwagandha leaves and extracts. PloS one, 11(12), e0166945.
 
[26]  Yang, H., Shi, G., & Dou, Q. P. (2007). The tumor proteasome is a primary target for the natural anticancer compound Withaferin A isolated from “Indian winter cherry”. Molecular pharmacology, 71(2), 426-437.
 
[27]  Chirumamilla, C. S., Pérez-Novo, C., Van Ostade, X., & Berghe, W. V. (2017). Molecular insights into cancer therapeutic effects of the dietary medicinal phytochemical withaferin A. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 76(2), 96-105.
 
[28]  Jirge, S. S., Tatke, P. A., & Gabhe, S. Y. (2011). Development and validation of a novel HPTLC method for simultaneous estimation of betasitosteroldglucoside and withaferin A. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci, 3(2), 227-230.
 
[29]  Chaurasiya, N. D., Gupta, V. K., & Sangwan, R. S. (2007). Leaf ontogenic phase-related dynamics of withaferin a and withanone biogenesis in ashwagandha (Withania somnifera Dunal.)-an important medicinal herb. Journal of Plant Biology, 50(4), 508.
 
[30]  Doughari, J. H. (2012). Phytochemicals: Extraction methods, basic structures and mode of action as potential chemotherapeutic agents. In Phytochemicals-A global perspective of their role in nutrition and health. In Tech.