American Journal of Microbiological Research
ISSN (Print): 2328-4129 ISSN (Online): 2328-4137 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/ajmr Editor-in-chief: Apply for this position
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2017, 5(6), 138-141
DOI: 10.12691/ajmr-5-6-4
Open AccessArticle

Detection of Legionella pneumophila from Evaporative Coolers Air Conditioners in Khartoum State

Elsanousi R.M.A1, and Elsanousi S.M.2

1Department of Microbiology, University of Bahri, Sudan

2Department of Microbiology, University of Khartoum, Sudan

Pub. Date: December 20, 2017

Cite this paper:
Elsanousi R.M.A and Elsanousi S.M.. Detection of Legionella pneumophila from Evaporative Coolers Air Conditioners in Khartoum State. American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2017; 5(6):138-141. doi: 10.12691/ajmr-5-6-4

Abstract

This study was designed to detect the prevalence of Legionella pneumophila in evaporative coolers air conditioners in Khartoum State. A total of 525 water samples were collected from water reservoirs of air conditioning systems in the three main cities of Khartoum State (Khartoum, Omdurman and Khartoum North) in the period between March – October, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015 and 2016. The premises from which the samples were collected were divided into five categories: universities, schools, hospitals, offices and houses (35 samples for each category in the three cities, with a total of 175 samples for each city). Legionella species were isolated from 222 (42.3%) out of the total samples taken from Khartoum State, which were divided as follows: 75 (33.8%) from Omdurman, 74 (33.3%) from Khartoum North and 73 (32.9%) from Khartoum. Regarding the premises categories, 58 (55.2%) were from hospitals, 52 (49.5%) from offices, 41 (39%) from schools, 38 (36.2%) from houses and 33 (31.4%) from universities were positive for Legionella spp. The highest prevalence rate of Legionella spp was found in hospitals (55.2%), followed by offices (49.5%), schools (39%), houses (36.2%) and universities (31.4%).

Keywords:
Legionella pneumophila evaporative coolers air conditioners water samples

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

References:

[1]  Anbumani, S., Gururajkumar, A. and Chaudhury, A. (2010). Isolation of Legionella pneumophila from clinical And environmental sources in a tertiary care hospital, Indian. J. Med. Res. 131: 761-764.
 
[2]  Barker, J., and Brown, M. R. W. (1994). “Trojan horses of the microbial world: protozoa and the survival of bacterial pathogens in the environment.” Microbiol 140 (6): 1253-1259.
 
[3]  Barrow, G. I. and Feltham, R. K. A. (2003). Cowan and Steel᾽s Manual for the identification of the Medical Bacteria, 3rd “edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U. K.
 
[4]  Best, M., Yu, V. L., Stout, J., Goetz,A., R. R. Muder,R.R., and Taylor, F (1983). “Legionellaceae in the hospital water-supply. Epidemiological link with disease and evaluation of a method for control of nosocomial legionnaires disease and Pittsburgh pneumonia,” The Lancet, 2(8345). 307-310.
 
[5]  Breiman, F. R. and Butler, J. C. (1998). Legionnaires’disease: clinical, epidemiological, and public health perspectives. Semin Respir Infect 13 (2): 84-89.
 
[6]  Burak, D. M. and Zeybek, Z (2011). Investigation of Legionella pneumophila and free living amoebas in the domestic hot water systems in Istanbul. Turk J Bio (l35). 679-685.
 
[7]  Cheesbrough, M., (2000). District Laboratory Practice in Tropical Countries, Part 2 Second Edition,Cambridge university press.
 
[8]  Chin, k. s., Rosli, A. A., Wee, C. S. L. and Ngeow, Y. F. (2005): isolation of Legionella from cooling towers and potable water systems in hospital and non-medical buildings in a university campus, JUMMEC 2003-2005. (8): 23-27.
 
[9]  Cianciotto, N. P. (2001): Pathogenicity of Legionella pneumophila. Int. J .Med. Microbiol. 291(5): 331-343.
 
[10]  Den Boer, J. W. and Yzerman, E. P. F. (2004). Diagnosis of Legionella infection in Legionnaires’ disease. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 23 (12): 871-878.
 
[11]  Devos, L., Clymans, K., Boon, N. and Verstraete, W (2005). Evaluation of nested PCR assays for the detection of Legionella pneumophila in a wide range of aquatic samples. J. Appl. Microbiol (99). 916-925.
 
[12]  Diederen, B. M. W, deJong, C. M. A., Marmouk, F.,.Kluytmans, J. A. J. W., Peeters, M. F. andZee1, A. V (2007). Evaluation of real-time PCR for the early detection of Legionella pneumophila DNA in serum samples. J. of Med. Microbiol. 56(1). 94-101.
 
[13]  Dimitriadi, D. and Velonakis, E. (2014). Detection of Legionella spp. From Domestic Water in the Prefecture of Arta, Greece, J. of Path., ID 407385, 5.
 
[14]  Edelstein, P. H (1981). Improved semi selective medium for isolation of Legionella pneumophila from contaminated clinical and environmental specimens. J. clin. Microbiol. 14(3). 298-303.
 
[15]  Edelstein, P.H., Cianciotto, N. P., Mandell, G. L., Bennett, J. E. and Dolin, R. (2005). Legionella Infections. principles and practice of infectious diseases.Sixth .ed. Philadelphia, PA Elsevier Inc. 2711-2724.
 
[16]  Essick, B (1945). Pad for evaporative coolers, filled Aug. 30, 1944, patented Dec1945. United state patent office, 2, 391, 558 Pad for evaporative coolers, Bryant Essick, Los Angeles, Calif. Application Augest 30, 1944, Serial No 551, 982.
 
[17]  Ewig, S. and Torres, A. (1999). Severe community-acquired pneumonia. Clin. Ches. Med., 20 (3): 575-587.
 
[18]  Fields, B. S., Benson, R. F. and Besser, R. E. (2002). Legionella and Legionnaires’ disease: 25 years of investigation. Clin. Microbiol. Rev., 15 (3): 506-526.
 
[19]  Fraser, D. W., Tsai, T. R., Orenstein, W., Parkin, W., E., Beecham, H. J., Sharrar, R.G., Harris, J., Mallison, G.F., Martin, S.M., McDade, J.E., Shepard,C.C. and Brachman, P.S (1977). Legionnaires' disease. description of an epidemic of pneumonia. N. Engl. J. med. 297(22). 1189-1197.
 
[20]  Ghotaslou, R., Sefidan, F. Y., Akhi, M. T., Soroush, M. H. and Hejazi, M. S (2013). Detection of Legionella Contamination in Tabriz Hospitals by PCR Assay. Adv. Pharma. Bull. 3(1). 131-134.
 
[21]  Greenberg, D., Chiou, C. C., Famigilleti, R., Lee, T. C. and Yu, V. L. (2006). Problem pathogens: paediatric legionellosis – implications for improved diagnosis. Lancet. Infect. Dis. 6(8): 529-535.
 
[22]  Joly, P., Falconnet, P. A., Andre, J., Weill, N., Reyrolle, M. Vandenesch F., Maurin, M., Etienne, J. and Jarraud,S., (2006). Quantitative real-time PCR for Legionella- environmental water samples. App. Environ. Microbiol. 72 (4): 2801-2808.
 
[23]  Kool, J. L., Bergmire-Sweat, D., Butler, J.C., Brown, E.W., Peabody, D.J., Massi, D.S,, Carpenter, J.C., Pruckler, J.M., Benson, R.F. and Fields, B.S (1999). “Hospital characteristics associated with colonization of water systems by Legionella and risk of nosocomial Legionnaires’ disease. a cohort study of 15 hospitals.” Infect. Control. hosp. Epidemiol. 20 (12). 798-805.
 
[24]  Leoni. E., De luca. G., Legnani. p. p, Sacchetti, S., Stampi, S . and Zanetti. F. (2005). Legionella waterline colonization: detection of Legionella species in domestic, hotel and hospital hot water systems. J. of App. Microbiol, 98, 373-379.
 
[25]  Lowry, P. W. and Tompkins, L. S (1993). Nosocomial legionellosis. a Review of pulmonary and extra pulmonary syndromes. Am. J. of Infect. Conol, 21(1). 21-27.
 
[26]  Macfarlane, J. T (1993). Prospective study of aetiology and outcome of adult lower respiratory- tract infections in the community. Lancet, 341 (8844). 511-514.
 
[27]  Nguyen, T. M., Ilef, D., Jarraud, S., Rouil,R., Campese, c., Che, D. Haeghebaert, S. Ganiayre, F., Marcel, F., Etienne, J., and Desenclos, J.C. (2006). A community-wide outbreak of Legionnaires disease linked to industrial cooling towers – how can far contaminated aerosols spread? J. Infect Dis 193(1): 102-111.
 
[28]  Nintasen, R., Utra rachkij, F., Siripanichgon, K., Bhumiratana, A., Suzuki, Y. and Suthien kul, O (2007). (mip) gene-specific nested polymerase chain reaction. Microbiol Immunol. Enhancement of Legionella pneumophila culture isolation from Micro environments by macrophage infectivity potentiator 51.777-785.
 
[29]  Pedro-Botet, M. L. and Yu, V. L (2009). Treatment strategies for Legionella infection. Expert. Opin. Pharma. 10 (7). 1109-1121.
 
[30]  Roig, J. and Rello, J. (2003). Legionnaires’ disease: a rational approach to therapy. J .Antimicrob. Chemother. 51(5): 1119-1129.
 
[31]  Sheehan, K. B., Henson, J. M. and Ferris, M. J. (2005). Legionella species diversity in an acidic biofilm community in Yellow stone National Park. Appl. Environ. Microbiol; 71(1): 507-511.
 
[32]  Smith, M. G (1982). A simple disc technique for the presumptive identification of Legionella pneumophila.” J. Clin. Pathol. 35(12). 1353-1355
 
[33]  Steele, T. W., Moore, C. V. and Sangster, N. (1990). Distribution of Legionella longbeachae serogroup 1 and other legionellae in potting soils in Australia. Appl Environ Microbiol 56(10): 2984-2988.
 
[34]  Stout, J. E., Yu, V. L. and Best, M. G (1985). Ecology of Legionella pneumophila within water distribution systems. Applied and Environment. Microbiolo, 49(1). 221-228.
 
[35]  Van der Eerden, M. M., Vlaspolder, F., deGraaff, C. S., Groot, T., Jansen, H. M. and Boersma, W. G. (2005). Value of intensive diagnostic microbiological investigation in low- and high-risk patients with community acquired pneumonia. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis., 24(4): 241-249.
 
[36]  Venezia, R. A (1994). Nosocomial legionellosis associated with aspiration of naso gastric feedings diluted in tap water. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology, 15(8). 529-533.
 
[37]  Welling hausen, N., Frost, C, and Marre. R. (2001). “Detection of Legionellae in hospital water samples by quantitative real-time Light Cycler PCR,” Appl Environ Microbiol 67(9): 3985-3993.
 
[38]  Winn, W. C. Jr. (1988). Legionnaires disease: Historical Perspective Microbiol Rev. 1(1):60-81.
 
[39]  Woodhead, M. A (1987). Prospective study of the aetiology and outcome of pneumonia in the community. Lancet, 1(8534). 671-674.
 
[40]  Yu, V. L (1993). Could aspiration be the major mode of transmission for Legionella? American Journal of Medicine. 95(1). 13-15.