American Journal of Microbiological Research
ISSN (Print): 2328-4129 ISSN (Online): 2328-4137 Website: Editor-in-chief: Apply for this position
Open Access
Journal Browser
American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2017, 5(5), 113-117
DOI: 10.12691/ajmr-5-5-4
Open AccessArticle

Cefotaxime Combined Ellagic Acid in a Liposomal Form for More Stable and Antimicrobial Effective Formula

Hani Zakaria Asfour1,

1Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia

Pub. Date: October 24, 2017

Cite this paper:
Hani Zakaria Asfour. Cefotaxime Combined Ellagic Acid in a Liposomal Form for More Stable and Antimicrobial Effective Formula. American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2017; 5(5):113-117. doi: 10.12691/ajmr-5-5-4


The aim of this study is loading of cefotaxime (CXM) and ellagic acid (EA) in a liposomal formula to enhance CXM corneal permeability, stability and antimicrobial activity, thin film hydration method used to form CXM- EA liposomes, particle size, zeta potential, scan electron microscope image, CXM release, drug stability and antimicrobial activity were tested. CTX entrapped in CXM – EA liposomes was 42.1 ± 3.2%, ellagic acid content was 72.1 ± 3.1%, particle size was 251.7 ± 1.2 nm, and Zeta potential was 12.4 ± 3.1 mV with a polydispersity index of 0.34 ± 0.21.In concern to CXM released, it was a dramatic rapid diffusion of raw CXM (~88%) after 1 hour, however, CXM released from CXM –EA liposomes (~50 %), after 2 h, raw CXM was completely dissolved in the buffer medium, but it takes about 8 h to be completely released to the buffered medium. Stability study was carried out among 14 days at room and refrigerator temperatures, raw CXM was expired after 7 days while the formulated CXM content was (~93 %) and (~96 %) for room and refrigerator temperature respectively, finally, antimicrobial activity was carried out against two gram positive and two gram negative microorganisms, data revealed that ellagic acid potentiates the antimicrobial activity of CXM.

cephalosporins eye infection cornea nanoparticles vesicles antimicrobial effect

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Foschi C, Compri M, Smirnova V, et al. Ease-of-use protocol for the rapid detection of third-generation cephalosporin resistance in Enterobacteriaceae isolated from blood cultures using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization???time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Journal of Hospital Infection. 2016; 93(2): 206-210.
[2]  Levi ME, Eusterman VD. Oral infections and antibiotic therapy. Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America. 2011; 44(1): 57-78.
[3]  Duvvuri S, Majumdar S, Mitra AK. Drug delivery to the retina: challenges and opportunities. Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy. 2003; 3(1): 45-56.
[4]  Takagi K, Ohgita T, Yamamoto T, Shinohara Y, Kogure K. Transmission of External Environmental pH Information to the Inside of Liposomes via Pore-Forming Proteins Embedded within the Liposomal Membrane. Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 2016; 64(5): 432-438.
[5]  Hanson MC, Abraham W, Crespo MP, et al. Liposomal vaccines incorporating molecular adjuvants and intrastructural T-cell help promote the immunogenicity of HIV membrane-proximal external region peptides. Vaccine. 2015; 33(7): 861-868.
[6]  Zidan AS, Hosny KM, Ahmed O a. a., Fahmy U a. Assessment of simvastatin niosomes for pediatric transdermal drug delivery. Drug Delivery. 2014; 0(0): 1-14.
[7]  Press D. Improvement of fluvastatin bioavailability by loading on nanostructured lipid carriers. 2015: 5797-5804.
[8]  Fahmy U. Nanoethosomal transdermal delivery of vardenafil for treatment of erectile dysfunction: optimization, characterization, and in vivo evaluation. Drug Design, Development and Therapy. 2015; 9: 6129.
[9]  Lajunen T, Nurmi R, Kontturi L, et al. Light activated liposomes: Functionality and prospects in ocular drug delivery. Journal of Controlled Release. 2016; 244: 157-166.
[10]  Dong Y, Dong P, Huang D, et al. Fabrication and characterization of silk fibroin-coated liposomes for ocular drug delivery. European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics. 2015; 91(July 2016): 82-90.
[11]  Costagliola C, Romano V, Forbice E, et al. Corneal oedema and its medical treatment. Clinical and Experimental Optometry. 2013; 96(6): 529-535.
[12]  Lallemand EA, Lacroix MZ, Toutain PL, Boullier S, Ferran AA, Bousquet-Melou A. In vitro degradation of antimicrobials during use of broth microdilution method can increase the measured minimal inhibitory and minimal bactericidal concentrations. Frontiers in Microbiology. 2016; 7(DEC): 2-7.
[13]  Leroux S, Roué JM, Gouyon JB, et al. A population and developmental pharmacokinetic analysis to evaluate and optimize cefotaxime dosing regimen in neonates and young infants. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 2016; 60(11): 6626-6634.
[14]  Ghanbarzadeh S, Valizadeh H, Zakeri-Milani P. Application of response surface methodology in development of sirolimus liposomes prepared by thin film hydration technique. BioImpacts. 2013; 3(2): 75-81.
[15]  Kurakula M, Ahmed OAA, Fahmy UA, Ahmed TA. Solid lipid nanoparticles for transdermal delivery of avanafil: optimization, formulation, in-vitro and ex-vivo studies. Journal of Liposome Research. 2015; 2104(January): 1-9.
[16]  Chavhan V, Ghante M, Sawant S. Development and Validation of RP-HPLC Method for Simultaneous Estimation of Olmesartan and Hydrochlorothiazide in Tablet Dosage Form. International Journal of ChemTech Research. 2014; 4(3): 1146-1150.
[17]  Fahmy UA, Aljaeid BM. Combined strategy for suppressing breast carcinoma MCF-7 cell lines by loading simvastatin on alpha lipoic acid nanoparticles. Expert opinion on drug delivery. 2016; 0(0).
[18]  Iqbal MS, Bahari MB, Darwis Y, Iqbal MZ, Hayat A. An RP-HPLC-UV method with SPE for cefotaxime in all-in-one total parenteral nutritional admixtures: Application to stability studies. Journal of AOAC International. 2013; 96(2): 290-294.
[19]  Intorre L, Vanni M, Di Bello D, et al. Antimicrobial susceptibility and mechanism of resistance to fluoroquinolones in Staphylococcus intermedius and Staphylococcus schleiferi. Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2007; 30(5): 464-469.
[20]  Junyaprasert VB, Singhsa P, Suksiriworapong J, Chantasart D. Physicochemical properties and skin permeation of Span 60/Tween 60 niosomes of ellagic acid. International Journal of Pharmaceutics. 2012; 423(2): 303-311.
[21]  Madrigal-Carballo S, Lim S, Rodriguez G, et al. Biopolymer coating of soybean lecithin liposomes via layer-by-layer self-assembly as novel delivery system for ellagic acid. Journal of Functional Foods. 2010; 2(2): 99-106.
[22]  Nii T, Ishii F. Encapsulation efficiency of water-soluble and insoluble drugs in liposomes prepared by the microencapsulation vesicle method. International Journal of Pharmaceutics. 2005; 298(1): 198-205.
[23]  Pichot R, Watson RL, Norton IT. Phospholipids at the interface: current trends and challenges. International journal of molecular sciences. 2013; 14(6): 11767-11794.
[24]  Zhou D, Bennett SW, Keller AA. Increased mobility of metal oxide nanoparticles due to photo and thermal induced disagglomeration. PLoS ONE. 2012; 7(5): 1-8.
[25]  Ahmed OA, Fahmy UA, Al-Ghamdi AS, et al. Finasteride-loaded biodegradable nanoparticles: Near-infrared quantification of plasma and prostate levels. Journal of Bioactive and Compatible Polymers. 2017: 88391151769439.
[26]  Foldvari M. Effect of vehicle. 1996; 1(5): 589-600.
[27]  Upadhyay P, Trivedi J, Pundarikakshudu K, Sheth N. Direct and enhanced delivery of nanoliposomes of anti schizophrenic agent to the brain through nasal route. Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal. 2017; 25(3): 346-358.
[28]  Glavas-Dodov M, Goracinova K, Mladenovska K, Fredro-Kumbaradzi E. Release profile of lidocaine HCl from topical liposomal gel formulation. International Journal of Pharmaceutics. 2002; 242(1-2): 381-384.
[29]  Carja G, Dranca S, Lehutu G. Stabilization of cefotaxime in hydrotalcite - Like anionic clay matrix and its controlled release. Revista de Chimie. 2010; 61(1): 27-30.
[30]  Phytochemical composition and biological activities of.
[31]  Ghosh G, Khan D. Chemotherapeutic Impact of natural antioxidant Flavonoids on Pathogenic Microbes and their Synergistic Effect2. 2016; 5(8).
[32]  Puupponen-Pimiä R, Nohynek L, Alakomi HL, Oksman-Caldentey KM. Bioactive berry compounds - Novel tools against human pathogens. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. 2005; 67(1): 8-18.
[33]  Daglia M. Polyphenols as antimicrobial agents. Current Opinion in Biotechnology. 2012; 23(2): 174-181.