American Journal of Microbiological Research
ISSN (Print): 2328-4129 ISSN (Online): 2328-4137 Website: Editor-in-chief: Apply for this position
Open Access
Journal Browser
American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2017, 5(3), 71-73
DOI: 10.12691/ajmr-5-3-4
Open AccessArticle

Serodetection of Hepatitis E Virus among Food Handlers in Khartoum Locality

Omer Mohammed Tamal1,

1Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medical laboratory Science, West Kurdofan University, Elnuhud Sudan

Pub. Date: June 27, 2017

Cite this paper:
Omer Mohammed Tamal. Serodetection of Hepatitis E Virus among Food Handlers in Khartoum Locality. American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2017; 5(3):71-73. doi: 10.12691/ajmr-5-3-4


Background: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections occur chiefly as a result of poor hygienic conditions. The virus is responsible for major outbreaks of acute hepatitis in developing countries. Objective: The aim of this study to detect HEV antibodies among food handlers working in Khartoum Locality. Methods: Enzyme linked immunoassay (ELISA) was done to determine the presence of anti- HEV IgG among 90 food handlers during the period from January to May 2015. The results: HEV IgG antibodies were detected in 10 (11.1%). There were no significant differences in HEV seropositivity between the subjects regarding gender (P = 0.8), age (P = 0.47) and nationality (P = 0.40) (Sudanese vs. Ethiopian), P. values ≤ 0.05. Conclusion: this study concluded that HEV circulate at low but considerable levels especially among food handlers; that may be a source of infections. Adoption of molecular methods to confirm HEV positive among food handlers is highly recommended. Further nationwide study is required to validate the results of the present study.

HEV IgG ELISA Hepatitis E virus food handlers Sudan

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Boccia D., Guthmann J., Klovstad H., Hamid N., Tatay M., Ciglenecki I., Nizou J., Nicand E., and Guerin P., “High mortality associated with an outbreak of hepatitis E among displaced persons in Darfur, Sudan,” Clin Infect Dis, 42. 1679-1684. Jun. 2006.
[2]  Panda S., Thakral D., and Rehman S., “Hepatitis E virus,” Rev Med Virol, 17. 151-180. May-Jun. 2007.
[3]  Aggarwal R., “Diagnosis of hepatitis E,” J Gastroenterol Hepatol, 10. 24-33. Jan. 2013.
[4]  Mushahwar I., “Hepatitis E virus: molecular virology, clinical features, diagnosis, transmission, epidemiology, and prevention,” J Med Virol, 80. 646-658. Feb. 2008.
[5]  Sook-Hyang J., “Current Status of Hepatitis E Virus Infection in Korea,” Gut Liver, 5(4). 427-431. Nov. 2011.
[6]  Guthmann J., Klovstad H., Boccia D., Hamid N., Pinoges L., Nizou J., Tatay M., Diaz F., Moren A., Grais R., Ciglenecki I., Nicand E., and Guerin P., “A large outbreak of hepatitis E among a displaced population in Darfur, Sudan, 2004: the role of water treatment methods,” Clin Infect Dis, 42. 1685-1691. May 2006.
[7]  Zuhal A., Mohammed N., and Mustafa EM., “Frequency of Hepatitis E Virus among Pregnant Women Attending Khartoum Hospitals,” American Journal of Research Communication, 2(4). 241-247. 2014.
[8]  Surajudeen A., Samuel E., and Khadijah A., “Epidemiology and Associated Risk Factors of Hepatitis E Virus Infection in Plateau State, Nigeria,” Virology (Auckl), 5. 15-26. May 2014.
[9]  Choolwe J., Clarance C., Cynthia P., Mpala M., Mumba C., Philip C., Samreen I., and Paul K., “Seroepidemiology of Hepatitis E Virus Infection in an Urban Population in Zambia: Strong Association with HIV and Environmental Enteropathy,” J Infect Dis, 209(5). 652-657. Mar. 2014.
[10]  Jong-Hoon K., Kenrad E., Ursula P., Yogita K., Alain B., and Thomas F., “A systematic review of the epidemiology of hepatitis E virus in Africa,” BMC Infect Dis, 14(5). 308. Jun. 2014.
[11]  Worm H., van der W., and Brandstaetter G., “Hepatitis E: an overview,” Microbes Infect, 4. 657-666. 2002.
[12]  Meng X., “Recent advances in Hepatitis E virus,” J Viral Hepat, 17. 153-161. Mar. 2010.
[13]  Byung-Seok K., Hyun-Sul L., Kwan L., Young-Sun M., Young-Sil Y., and Hye-Sook J., “A Survey on the Status of Hepatitis E Virus Infection Among Slaughterhouse Workers in South Korea,” Prev Med Public Health, 48(1). 53-61. Jan. 2015.
[14]  Audrey C., Hélène C., Emma R., Josefa R., Camille B., Franck B., Mauro T., Antoine T., Nathalie G., Patrick C., and Pierre C., “High Hepatitis E Virus Seroprevalence in Forestry Workers and in Wild Boars in France,” J Clin Microbiol, 50(9). 2888-2893. Jun. 2012.
[15]  Xian-Feng C., Yu-Feng W., Ming Z., Sheng-Wei Z., Jin-Xiu Z., Chen D., Ke-Xia X., Xiao-Bing X., Gang W., and Ling-Fei H., “Serological and molecular study of hepatitis E virus among illegal blood donors,” World J Gastroenterol, 18(9). 986-990. Mar. 2012.
[16]  Cosme A., Luis F., and Jesus H., “Seroepidemiology of Hepatitis E Virus Infection in General Population in Rural Durango, Mexico,” Hepat Mon, 14(6). e16876. Jun. 2014.
[17]  Mahnaz T., Manouchehr K., Latif G., Mohammad J., and Mohammad R., “Hepatitis E virus infection in hemodialysis patients: A seroepidemiological survey in Iran,” BMC Infect Dis, 5(36). 1-16. May 2005.
[18]  Hassan E., Amitis R., Ali E., Masoomeh S., Mohammad B., Shahin G., Arezoo A., and Parisa M., “Seroprevalence of Hepatitis E Virus infection among volunteer blood donors in central province of Iran in 2012,” Iran J Microbiol, 5(2). 172-176. Feb. 2013.