American Journal of Microbiological Research
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American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2017, 5(3), 51-58
DOI: 10.12691/ajmr-5-3-1
Open AccessArticle

Influence of the Culture Filtrate of Three Paecilomyces Species on Some Growth Parameters, Chlorophyll Content, and Root Anatomy of Two Ghanaian Maize Varieties (Abeleehi and Obaatanpa) and on Germination Capacity of Tomato and Pepper Seeds

Andrew A. Minamor1 and G.T. Odamtten2,

1Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Accra Technical University, P. O. Box GP 561, Accra- Ghana

2Department of Plant and Environmental Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Ghana, P. O. Box LG 55 Legon

Pub. Date: June 19, 2017

Cite this paper:
Andrew A. Minamor and G.T. Odamtten. Influence of the Culture Filtrate of Three Paecilomyces Species on Some Growth Parameters, Chlorophyll Content, and Root Anatomy of Two Ghanaian Maize Varieties (Abeleehi and Obaatanpa) and on Germination Capacity of Tomato and Pepper Seeds. American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2017; 5(3):51-58. doi: 10.12691/ajmr-5-3-1

Abstract

Three xerophillic fungal species, Paecilomyces carneus, P. puntoni, P. variotii were for the first time isolated from two Ghanaian maize (Zea mays L.) varieties Abeleehi and Obaatanpa. The fungal species were isolated under varying ambient humidity of 55-65% provided by glycerol, water mixtures in both grain varieties. The cultural filtrate of the Paecilomyces raised in Maize Meal Broth prepared from either Abeleehi or Obaatanpa and Potato-Dextrose broth. The cultural filtrate prepared in varying dilutions (undiluted - 1:10v/v) were used as germinating medium to test the germinating capacity and radicle development of hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) variety Legon 18 and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum M.) varieties Owusu -Bio and Wosowoso using the blotter test method. The metabolites and mycelium/conidia of the three fungal species were tested on vegetative growth and dry matter accumulation of the plants under both greenhouse conditions and in the field. Dry weights of the root and shoot systems were determined at varying intervals by the oven-dry weight method. The metabolites of the three fungal species significantly (P ≤ 0.05) depressed seed germination and radicle development of the two vegetables. Each culture filtrate from the test fungi was unique in its effect on the germination and radicle development of the seedlings of tomato and pepper. There were also varietal differences in response to the tomato and pepper seeds to the same metabolites. The inhibitory effect was highest on var. Owusu-Bio than var. Wosowoso. The inhibitory principle was still potent even at 1:10v/v dilution level. The reduction of plant height, leaf length and leaf width of the two maize varieties in pots in the greenhouse by the culture filtrate of the fungal species was marginal and, did not differ significantly (P ≤ 0.05) from the control seedlings. The plant height, leaf length and leaf width were significantly (P ≤ 0,05) depressed by the metabolites of the fungal species in the field. Each plant part responded differently to the inhibitory effect of the culture metabolites. The chlorophyll content of the leaves of the growing seedlings under the influence of the three fungal metabolites were affected both in the field and in the greenhouse Duncian's Multiple Range Test showed that chlorophyll content were significantly (P ≤ 0.05) different from the untreated. Varietal differences in chlorophyll content were recorded in the leaves of the seedlings in the field and the greenhouse depending on the fungal metabolites used on the growing seedlings. Photosynthetic apparatus of the seedlings of the maize varieties were affected by the metabolites of the test fungi. The roots of the untreated seedlings was 2-3 times wider in diameter than those seedlings exposed to the three fungal metabolites. However, the endodermis and pericycle were clearly formed and demarcated in both the treated and the untreated samples. The pith parenchyma was sclerified and 2-3 times narrower in diameter in the treated plants. The phloem and xylem regions of the root were also reduced in number and size. Practical implications of findings are discussed.

Keywords:
Paecilomyces Maize (Abeleehi Obaatanpa) Chlorophyll content Pericycle Pith parenchyma tomato pepper

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