American Journal of Microbiological Research
ISSN (Print): 2328-4129 ISSN (Online): 2328-4137 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/ajmr Editor-in-chief: Apply for this position
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2014, 2(1), 47-51
DOI: 10.12691/ajmr-2-1-7
Open AccessArticle

Influence of Aeration Speed on Bacterial Colony Forming Unit (CFU) Formation Capacity

Md. Sakil Munna1, Sadika Tamanna1, Most. Rumana Afrin1, Gulshan Ara Sharif1, Chaity Mazumder1, Konica Sarker Kana1, Nusrat Jahan Urmi1, Md. Aftab Uddin1, Tasmina Rahman1 and Rashed Noor1,

1Department of Microbiology, Stamford University Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh

Pub. Date: February 09, 2014

Cite this paper:
Md. Sakil Munna, Sadika Tamanna, Most. Rumana Afrin, Gulshan Ara Sharif, Chaity Mazumder, Konica Sarker Kana, Nusrat Jahan Urmi, Md. Aftab Uddin, Tasmina Rahman and Rashed Noor. Influence of Aeration Speed on Bacterial Colony Forming Unit (CFU) Formation Capacity. American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2014; 2(1):47-51. doi: 10.12691/ajmr-2-1-7

Abstract

Bacterial homeostasis depends on an array of physical and chemical stimulants. Current investigation assessed the impact of one of such factors, the speed of aeration, on cell viability and culturability of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas spp. and Bacillus spp. Each of the bacterial strain was incubated at 37°C with a shaking speed of 0, 100 or 200 rotation per minute (rpm) separately up to 72 hours, with a simultaneous monitoring of morphological changes and cell culturability. All bacterial species were found to optimally grow at 100 rpm whereas at 0 rpm growths of E. coli and Pseudomonas spp. were bit slower compared to that of Bacillus spp. The capacity to form colony forming units (CFUs) of E. coli and Pseudomonas spp. on Luria Burtani (LB) agar plates were observed to be inhibited after 36 hours of growth at 200 rpm; i.e., approximately 3-log reduced CFUs than those formed by Bacillus spp. Besides, morphologically impaired cells were observed for the former two bacteria cultivated at 200 rpm. Taken together, it is assumed that the high speed shaking might evolve the oxidative stress endogenously which possibly rendered the cells lose their culturability.

Keywords:
Eshecrichia coli Pseudomonas spp. Bacillus spp. aeration speed colony forming units (CFUs) oxidative stress

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Figures

Figure of 3

References:

[1]  Nagamitsu, H., Murata, M., Kosaka, T., Kawaguchi, J., Mori, H., Yamada, M., “Crucial roles of MicA and RybB as vital factors for σE dependent cell lysis in Escherichia coli long-term stationary phase,” J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol, 23, 227-232, 2013.
 
[2]  Murata, M., Noor, R., Nagamitsu, H., Tanaka, S., Yamada, M., “Novel pathway directed by σE to cause cell lysis in Escherichia coli,” Genes to Cells, 17, 234-247, 2012.
 
[3]  Noor, R., Murata, M., Yamada, M., “Oxidative stress as a trigger for growth phase-specific σE dependent cell lysis in Escherichia coli,Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology, 17, 177-187, 2009.
 
[4]  Noor, R., Murata, M., Nagamitsu, H., Klein, G., Rain, S., Yamada, M., “Dissection of sigma-E dependent cell lysis in Escherichia coli: roles of RpoE regulators RseA, RseB and periplasmic folding catalyst Ppid,” Genes to cells, 14, 885-899, 2009.
 
[5]  Moat, A.G., Foster, J.W., Spector, M.P., Lipid and Sterol in Microbial Physiology, Wiley and Sons, New York, 2002.
 
[6]  Nitta, T., Nagamitsu, H., Murata, M., Izu, H., Yamada, M., “Function of the sigma-E regulon in dead-cell lysis in stationary phase Escherichia coli,J Bacteriol, 182, 5231-5237, 2000.
 
[7]  Baez, A., Shiloach, J., “Escherichia coli avoids high dissolved oxygen stress by activation of SoxRS and manganese-superoxide dismutase,” Microb Cell Fact, 12, 12-23, 2013.
 
[8]  Imlay J.A., “Cellular Defenses against Superoxide and Hydrogen Peroxide,” Annual Review of Biochemistry, 77, 755-76, 2008.
 
[9]  Cuny, C., Dukan, L., Fraysse, L., Ballesteros, M., Dukan, S., “Investigations of the first events leading to the loss of culturability during Escherichia coli starvation: future non-culturable bacteria form a subpopulation,” J Bacteriol, 187, 2244-2248, 2005.
 
[10]  Nystrom, T., “Role of oxidative carbonylation in protein quality control and senescence,” The EMBO Journal, 24, 1311-1317, 2005.
 
[11]  Desnues, B., Cuny, C., Gregori, G., Dukan, S., Aguilaniu, H., Nystrom, T., “Differential oxidative damage and expression of stress defence regulons in culturable and nonculturable Escherichia coli cells,” EMBO reports, 4: 400-404, 2003.
 
[12]  Cabiscol, E., Tamarit, J., Ros, J., “Oxidative stress in bacteria and protein damage by reactive oxygen species,” Internatl Microbiol, 3, 3-8, 2000.
 
[13]  Dukan, S., Nystrom, T., “Oxidative stress defense and deterioration of growth arrested Escherichia coli cells,” J Biol Chem, 274, 26027-26032, 1999.
 
[14]  Dukan, S., Nyström, T., “Bacterial senescence: stasis results in increased and differential oxidation of cytoplasmic proteins leading to developmental induction of the heat shock regulon,” Genes Dev, 12, 3431-3441, 1998.
 
[15]  Farr, S.B., Kogoma, T., “Oxidative stress responses in Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium,” American Society for Microbiology, 55 (4), 561-585, 1991.
 
[16]  Hunter, G.J., Hunter, T., “GroESL protects superoxide dismutase (SOD)-deficient cells against oxidative stress and is a chaperone for SOD,” SciRes, 5, 1719-1729, 2013.
 
[17]  Chiang, S.M., Schellhorn, H.E., “Regulators of oxidative stress response genes in Escherichia coli and their functional conservation in bacteria,” Arch Biochem Biophys, 525 (2), 161-169, 2012.
 
[18]  Hunter, T., Bannister, J.V., Hunter, G.J., “Thermo stability of manganese and iron-superoxide dismutases from Escherichia coli is determined by the characteristic position of a glutamine residue,” European Journal of Biochemistry, 269, 5137-5148, 2002.
 
[19]  Rungrassamee, W., Kelly, C., Ryan, M.J.M., Pablo, J.P., “The PqrR Transcriptional repressor of Pseudomonas aeruginosa transduces redox signals via an iron containing prosthetic group,” Journal of Bacteriology, 191, 6709-6721, 2009.
 
[20]  Zuber, P., “Management of oxidative stress in Bacillus spp.,” Annual Review of Microbiology, 63, 575-597, 2009.
 
[21]  Rungrassamee, W., Oxidative stress responses in Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Electronic Doctoral Dissertations for University of Massachusetts Amherst, 2008. Available at: http://scholarworks.umass. edu/ dissertations/ AAI3325244. [January 1, 2008].
 
[22]  Helmann, J.D., Wu, M.F.W., Gaballa, A., Kobel, P.A., Morshedi, M.M., Fawcett, P., Paddon, C., “The global transcriptional response of Bacillus subtilis to peroxide stress is coordinated by three transcription factors,” J Bacteriol, 185, 243-253, 2003.
 
[23]  Sabra, Eun-Jin, K., Anping, Z., “Physiological response of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01 to oxidative stress in controlled microaerobic and aerobic cultures,” Microbiology, 148, 3195-3202, 2002.
 
[24]  Friedberg, E.C., Walker, G.C., Siede, W., DNA repair and mutagenesis, American Society for Microbiology, Washington DC, 1995.
 
[25]  Givskov, M., Eberl, L., Moller, S., Poulsen, L. K., Molin, S., “Responses to nutrient starvation in Pseudomonas Putida KT2442: analysis of general cross-protection, cell shape, and macromolecular content,” J Bacteriol, 176, 7-14, 1994.
 
[26]  Inaoka, T., Matsumura, Y., Tsuchido, T., “SodA and manganese are essential for resistance to oxidative stress in growing and sporulating cells of Bacillus subtilis,” J Bacteriol, 181 (6), 1939-1943, 1990.
 
[27]  Soini, J., Ukkonen, K., Neubauer, P., “High cell density media for Escherichia coli are generally designed for aerobic cultivations-consequences for large-scale bioprocesses and shake flask cultures,” Microbial Cell Factories, 7, 26, 2008.
 
[28]  Colemana, M.E., Tamplinb, M.L., Phillips, J.G., Marmer, B.S., Influence of agitation, inoculum density, pH, and strain on the growth parameters of Escherichia coli O157: H7-relevance to risk assessment,” International Journal of Food Microbiology, 83, 147-160, 2003.
 
[29]  Conter, A., Gangneux, C., Suzanne, M., Gutierrez, C., “Survival of Escherichia coli during long-term starvation: effects of aeration, NaCl, and the rpoS and osmC gene products,” Res Microbiol, 152, 17-26, 2001.
 
[30]  Noor, R., Islam, Z., Munshi, S.H., and Rahman, F., “Influence of temperature on Escherichia coli growth in different culture media,” Journal of pure and applied microbiology, 7 (2), 899-904, 2013.
 
[31]  Yamada, M., Noor, R., Nagamitsu, H., and Murta, M., “The higher temperature, the more oxidative stress and lysis in Escherichia coli,” The 3rd International Conference on Fermentation Technology for Value Added Agricultural Products, Khon Kaen, Thailand, 2009.
 
[32]  Munna, M.S., Nur, I., Rahman, T., Noor, R., “Influence of exogenous oxidative stress on Escherichia coli cell growth, viability and morphology,” American Journal of BioScience, 1 (4), 59-62, 2013.
 
[33]  Kabir, M.S., Yamashita, D., Noor, R., Yamada, M., “Effect of σS on σE-directed cell lysis in Escherichia coli early stationary phase,” J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol, 2004, 8, 189-194.
 
[34]  Mary, K.B., David, S., Phillips, Janet, O.B., “Shaker agitation rate and orbit affect growth of cultured bacteria,” Thermo Fisher Scientific, 2011.
 
[35]  Juergensmeyer, M.A., Nelson, E.S., Juergensmeyer, E.A., “Shaking alone, without concurrent aeration, affects the growth characteristics of Escherichia coli,” Letters in Applied Microbiology, 45, 179-183, 2007.
 
[36]  Quin, M.B., Berrisford, J.M., Newman, J.A, Baslé, A., Lewis, R.J., Marles, W.J., “The bacterial stressosome: a modular system that has been adapted to control secondary messenger signaling,” Structure, 20 (2), 350-363, 2012.
 
[37]  Wilkinson, S.P., Grove, A., “Ligand-responsive transcriptional regulation by members of the MarR family of winged helix proteins,” Curr Issues Mol Biol, 8, 51-62, 2006.
 
[38]  Salunkhe, P., Topfer, T., Buer, J., Tummler, B., “Genome-wide transcriptional profiling of the steady-state response of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to hydrogen peroxide,” J Bacteriol, 187, 2565-2572, 2005.
 
[39]  Den Besten, H., M., W., Effraimidou, S., Abee, T., “Catalase activity as a biomarker for mild stress induced robustness in Bacillus weihenstephanensis,” Appl Environ Microbiol, 79 (1), 57-62, 2013.
 
[40]  Huillet, E., Tempelars, M., Andre, L.G., Wanapaisan, P., Bridoux, L., Makhzamis, et al., “PIcRa. a new qurum-sensing regulator from Bacillus cereus, play a role in oxidative stress response and cystein metabolism in stationary phase,” Genetigue Microbienneet Environment, 7 (12), e51047, 2012.
 
[41]  Pohl, S., Tu, W., Aldridge, P., Gillespie, C., Hahne, H., Mader, U., “Combined proteomic and transcriptomic analysis of the response of Bacillus anthracis to oxidative stress,” Proteomics, 11 (15), 3036-55, 2011.
 
[42]  Passalacqua, K., Bergman, N., Leejy, Sherman, D., Hanna, P., “The superoxide dismutases of Bacillus antracis do not cooperatively protect against endogenous superoxide stress,” J Bacteriol, 188 (11), 3837-48, 2006.
 
[43]  Passalacqua, K., Bergman, N., Leejy, Sherman, D., Hanna, P., “The global transcriptional responses of Bacillus anthracis sterne (34F2) and a delta sodAI mutant to paraquat reveal metal ion homeostasis inbalances during endogenous superoxide stress,” J Bacteriol, 189 (11), 3996-4013, 2007.
 
[44]  Hiremath, P.S., Parashuram, B., “Automatic identification and classification of bacilli bacterial cell growth phases,” IJCA Special Issue on Recent Trends in Image Processing and Pattern Recognition, IJCA Journal, 48-52.
 
[45]  Setlow, B., Setlow, P., “Role of DNA repair in Bacillus subtilis spore resistance.” J Bacteriol, 178, 3486-3495, 1996.
 
[46]  Losen, M., Frölich, B., Pohl, M., Büchs, J., “Effect of oxygen limitation and medium composition on Escherichia coli fermentation in shake-flask cultures,” Biotechnol Prog, 20 (4), 1062-1068, 2004.
 
[47]  Bunch, A.W., “High cell density growth of microorganisms,” Biotechnol Genet Eng Rev, 12, 535-561, 1994.
 
[48]  McDaniel, L.E., Bailey, E.G., Zimmerli, A., “Effect of oxygen-supply rates on growth of Escherichia coli. II. Comparison of results in shake flasks and 50-liter fermentor,” Appl Microbiol, 13:115-9, 1965.