American Journal of Modeling and Optimization
ISSN (Print): 2333-1143 ISSN (Online): 2333-1267 Website: Editor-in-chief: Dr Anil Kumar Gupta
Open Access
Journal Browser
American Journal of Modeling and Optimization. 2014, 2(2), 47-59
DOI: 10.12691/ajmo-2-2-2
Open AccessArticle

Modeling on the Aspects of Thermal Response of Bay of Bengal to Tropical Cyclone TC05B 1999 using Princeton Ocean Model (POM): Preliminary Results

Yashvant Das1, 2, , U. C. Mohanty1, 3, Jain Indu1, M. Subba Rao4 and A.S.N. Murty5

1CAS, Indian Institute of Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi, India

2Research and Modelling Division, AIR Worldwide India Private Limited, Rockdale, Somajiguda, Hyderabad, India

3EOCS, Indian Institute of Technology, Bhubaneshwar, India

4CEA&WMT, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Kukatpally, Hyderabad, India

5Department of Marine Sciences, Berhampur University, Berhampur, India

Pub. Date: April 10, 2014

Cite this paper:
Yashvant Das, U. C. Mohanty, Jain Indu, M. Subba Rao and A.S.N. Murty. Modeling on the Aspects of Thermal Response of Bay of Bengal to Tropical Cyclone TC05B 1999 using Princeton Ocean Model (POM): Preliminary Results. American Journal of Modeling and Optimization. 2014; 2(2):47-59. doi: 10.12691/ajmo-2-2-2


Tropical cyclones (TC’s), while moving over the ocean bring about significant changes in ocean thermal structure and other ocean environment. These oceanic thermal responses provide vital information for understanding the air-sea interaction processes. This study used Princeton Ocean Model (POM) to investigate the changes in the oceanic thermal characteristics of Bay of Bengal (BOB) associated with TC05B (Orissa super cyclone) 1999. Model was forced with the wind and heat plus salinity fluxes as surface forcing in different experiments. In order to provide reasonable and realistic cyclonic winds to the model as forcing, the tropical cyclone wind model (TCWM) was developed to generate the synthetic cyclonic winds and superimposed with the analyzed blended QSCAT/NCEP wind field. Results show significant drop in sea surface temperature (SST) beneath the storm centre and to the right of the track confirming the earlier findings and are in qualitative agreement with the available Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager (TMI) satellite SST imageries. Subsurface thermal structures also reflect significant impact of cyclonic vortex over BOB.

tropical cyclone synthetic vortex sea surface temperature (SST) cooling thermal structure

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


Figure of 11


[1]  ANONYMOUS (1979): Tracks of Storms and Depressions in the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea 1877-1970, India Meteorological Department, New Delhi, Charts 1-186.
[2]  Chinthalu, G.R., Seetaramayya, P., Ravindran, M., and Mahajan, P.N. (2001): Response of the Bay of Bengal to Gopalpur and Paradip Super Cyclone during 15-31 October, 1999,Curr Sci, 81 (5),283-291.
[3]  Gopalakrishna, V.V., Murty, V.S.N., Sarma, M.S.S., and Sastry, J.S. (1993): Thermal Response of Upper Layers of Bay of Bengal to Forcing of a Severe Cyclonic Storm: A case Study, Indian J. Mar. Sci, 22, 8-11.
[4]  Kara, A.B., Rochford, P.A., and Hurlburt, H.E. (2000): An Optimal Definition of Ocean Mixed Layer Depth, J. Geophysics Res. 105, 16,803-16,821.
[5]  Kara, A.B., Rochford, P.A., and Hurlburt, H.E. (2003a): Mixed Layer Depth Variability Over the Global Ocean, J. Geophysics Res. 108.
[6]  Kara, A.B., Rochford, P.A., and Hurlburt, H.E. (2003b): Climatological SST and MLD Prediction from a Global Layered Ocean Model with an Embedded Mixed Layer, J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol, 20, 1616-1632.
[7]  Levitus, S. and Boyer, T.P. (1994a): World Ocean atlas 1994,Vol, 4, Temperature, NOAA Atlas, NESDIS, Vol, 4, U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington D.C., U.S.A. pp 1-117.
[8]  Levitus, S., Burgett, R., and Boyer, T.P. (1994b): World Ocean atlas 1994,Vol, 3, Salinity, NOAA Atlas, NESDIS, Vol, 4, U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington D.C., U.S.A. pp 1-99.
[9]  Rao, Y.R. (2002): The Bay of Bengal tropical cyclones, Curr Sci., 82, 379-381.
[10]  Rao, R.R. (1987): Further analysis on the thermal response of the Upper Bay of Bengal to the forcing of pre-monsoon cyclonic storm and summer monsoonal onset during MONEX-79, Mausam, 38 147-156.
[11]  Shay, L.K., (1994): Oceanic Response to tropical cyclones. In the Oceans: Physical-Chemical Dynamics and Human Impact (eds. S.K. Mujumdar, E.W. Miller, G.S. Forbes, R.F. Schmalz, and Assad A. Panah) (The Pennsylvania Academy of Science), pp. 1-497.
[12]  Shay, L.K., Goni, G. J., and Black, P.G. (2000): Effects of Warm Oceanic Feature on Hurricane Opal, Mon. Weath. Rev., 128, 1367-1383.
[13]  Price, J.F. (1981): Upper ocean response to a hurricane, J. Physics. Oceanogr., 11,153-175.
[14]  Mellor, G.L. (2001): One-dimensional, ocean surface layer modeling, a problem and a solution, J. Physc. Oceanogr., 31, 790-809.
[15]  Mellor, G.L. and T. Yamada (1982): Development of a turbulence closure model for geophysical fluid problems, Rev. Geophys., 20, 851-875.
[16]  Zedler, S.E., Dickey, T.D., Doney, S.C., Price,J.F., Yu, X., and Mellor, G.L (2002):Analysis and simulations of the upper ocean’s response to Hurricane Felix at the Bermuda Testbed Mooring site: 13-23 August 1995, Vol. 107, NO, C12, 3232.
[17]  Jacob, S.D. and Shay, L.K (2003): The role of oceanic mesoscale features on the tropical cyclone-induced mixed layer response: A case study, 649-676..
[18]  Vinaychandran, P. N., Murty, V.S.N. and Ramesh Babu, V. (2002): Observations of barrier layer formation in the Bay of Bengal during Southwest Monsoon, J. Geophy. Res., 107, 8018.
[19]  Subramanyam, B., et al. (2005): Air-sea coupling during the tropical cyclone in the Indian Ocean: A case study using satellite observations, Pure and Applied Geophys., 162, 1643-1672.
[20]  Sadhuram, Y. (2004): Record decrease of sea surface temperature following the passage of super cyclone over the Bay of Bengal, Current Sci., 86(3), 383-384.
[21]  Gray, W.M. (1979):In Meteorology over Tropical Oceans (ed. Shaw,D.B.),R. Meteorol. Soc., Bracknell, pp. 155-218.
[22]  Leipper, D.F.(1967): Observed ocean conditions and hurricane Hilda, 1964, J. Atmos. Sci., 24,182-196.
[23]  Lin, I.-I., Liu, W.T., Wu, C.-C., Chiang, J.C.H., and Sui, C.-H. (2003): Satellite observations of modulation of surface winds by typhoon-induced upper ocean cooling,Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, 1131.
[24]  Nelson, N. B. (1998): Spatial and temporal extent of sea surface temperature modifications by hurricanes in the Sargaso Sea during the 1995 season, Mon. Wea. Rev., 126, 1364-1368.
[25]  Stramma, L., Cornillion, P. and Price, J.F. (1986): Satellite observation of sea surface cooling by hurricanes, J. Geophys. Res., 91, 5031-5035.
[26]  Wright, R. (1969): Temperature structure across the Kuroshio before and after typhoon Shirley, Tellus, 21,409-413.
[27]  Chu, P.C., Veneziano, J.M., and Fan C. (2000): Response of the south China sea to tropical cyclone Ernie 1996, 105(C6), 13, 991-14009.
[28]  Carr, L.E., III and Elsberry, R.L. (1997): Models of Tropical cyclone wind distribution and beta-effect propagation for application to tropical cyclone track forecasting, Mon. Wea. Rev., 125, 3190-3209.
[29]  Wentz, F.J., Gentemann, C., Smith, D., and Chelton, D.(2000): Satellite measurements of sea surface temperature through clouds, Science, 288, 847-850.
[30]  Maeda, A., (1964): On the Variation of the Vertical Thermal Structure, J. Oceanogr. Soc. Japan, 20(6), 255-263.
[31]  Mohanty, U.C., Mandal, M., Raman, S. (2004): Simulation of Orissa Super Cyclone 1999 using PSU/NCAR Mesoscale Model, Natural Hazards, 31, 373-390.
[32]  Blumberg, A. F., and Mellor, G. L. (1987): A description of a three-dimensional coastal ocean circulation model. Three-Dimensional Coastal Ocean Models. Vol. 4, N. Heaps, Ed., American Geophysical Union. 208 pp.
[33]  Morey S.L., Bourasa M.A., Dukhovskoy D.S., O’Brian J.J. (2006): Modeling studies of the upper ocean response to a tropical cyclone, Ocean Dynamics.
[34]  Liu H., Liu B., Xie L., and Zhang K. (2012): Simulation Of Ocean Responses To An Idealized Landfalling Tropical Cyclone Using A Coupled Atmosphere-Wave-Ocean Modeling System, Tropical Cyclone Research and Review, 1(3), 373-389.
[35]  Greatbatch, R.J. (1985): On the role played by upwelling of water in lowering sea surface temperatures during the passage of a storm. Journal of Geophysical Research 90.
[36]  Dickey, T. D., Frye, D., Mcneil, J., Manov, D., Nelson, N., Sigurdson, D., Jannasch, H., Siegel, D., Michaels, A. F., and Johnson, R. J. (1988): Upper-ocean temperature response to Hurricane Felix as measured by the Bermuda Testbed Mooring, Mon. Weather Rev., 126, 1195-1201.
[37]  Cornillon, P., Stramma, L., and Price, J. F. (1987): Satellite measurements of sea surface cooling during hurricane Gloria, Nature, 326, 373-375.