American Journal of Mining and Metallurgy
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American Journal of Mining and Metallurgy. 2015, 3(3), 63-73
DOI: 10.12691/ajmm-3-3-2
Open AccessArticle

Groundwater Quality and Hydrogeochemistry of Toungo Area, Adamawa State, North Eastern Nigeria

J.M. Ishaku1, B.A. Ankidawa2, and A.M. Abbo1

1Department of Geology, School of Pure and Applied Sciences, Modibbo Adama University of Technology, PMB 2076, Yola, Nigeria

2Department of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, School of Engineering and Engineering Technology, Modibbo Adama University of Technology, PMB 2076,Yola, Nigeria

Pub. Date: December 21, 2015

Cite this paper:
J.M. Ishaku, B.A. Ankidawa and A.M. Abbo. Groundwater Quality and Hydrogeochemistry of Toungo Area, Adamawa State, North Eastern Nigeria. American Journal of Mining and Metallurgy. 2015; 3(3):63-73. doi: 10.12691/ajmm-3-3-2

Abstract

Analytical results revealed that the water from various sources in the study area is unfit for human consumption due to bacteriological pollution. The water quality for agricultural practice indicated that water is good for agricultural practice. The Sodium Absorption Ratio (SAR) values range from 0.04 meq/l to 0.60 meq/l with an average of 0.13 meq/l. The Residual Sodium Carbonate (RSC) values range from 0.35 meq/l to 2.64 meq/l with an average of 1.43 meq/l as to of the water of generally safe. Total dissolved solid (TDS) values ranges from 95 to 285 mg/l hence the water is good for irrigational purposes. The study also revealed that the water may be unsuitable for some industries due to high iron concentration in some places, the values range from 0.21 to 3.97 mg/l with an average of 0.5 mg/l which indicate values above the recommended limits of 0.2 mg/l for industrial purpose. The water has total hardness ranging from 19.64 mg/l to 92.01 mg/l with a mean value of 50.97 mg/l, hence suitable for some industrial activities. PCA, HCA and rock-water interaction diagrams identified diffused form of contamination, leaching of bed rock geochemistry, salinity, natural mineralization, anthropogenic contamination, silicate weathering and oxidation as the major processes controlling the groundwater geochemistry. The groundwater is of calcium magnesium bicarbonate facies which belong to the normal alkaline group.

Keywords:
bacteriological pollution agricultural practice water quality groundwater industries geochemistry

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