American Journal of Mechanical Engineering
ISSN (Print): 2328-4102 ISSN (Online): 2328-4110 Website: Editor-in-chief: Kambiz Ebrahimi, Dr. SRINIVASA VENKATESHAPPA CHIKKOL
Open Access
Journal Browser
American Journal of Mechanical Engineering. 2017, 5(2), 58-63
DOI: 10.12691/ajme-5-2-4
Open AccessArticle

Does Temperature Effects the Growth of Cracks in a Submarine Volcano That is under a Hot-spot?

M. Tsili1 and D. Zacharopoulos1,

1Department of Civil Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace, Xanthi, Greece

Pub. Date: March 20, 2017

Cite this paper:
M. Tsili and D. Zacharopoulos. Does Temperature Effects the Growth of Cracks in a Submarine Volcano That is under a Hot-spot?. American Journal of Mechanical Engineering. 2017; 5(2):58-63. doi: 10.12691/ajme-5-2-4


In this paper we investigated if temperature effects the growth of cracks in a submarine volcano that was under a hot-spot. We based upon theory of fracture mechanics for and we showed that the undersea volcano will be exploded and a sea-whirpool will be gene- rated. Our findings are verified by studies that recorded the above phe-nolmenon in certain places of the Earth. Thus we concluded that temperature significantly contributes to the growth of cracks.

effect of temperature grow and propagation of cracks theory of fracture mechanics submarine volcano hot- spot

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Lekkas S. (1985). “Notes of Dynamic Geology”. University of Athens, Greek.
[2]  Taylor S. and McLemon S. (1985). “The continental crust: its composition and evolution”. Oxford Blackwell Scientific.
[3]  Kearey P. and Vine J. (1990). “Global Tectonics. Oxford: Blac kwell Scientific Publications.
[4]  Moores M. and Twiss J. (1995). “Tectonics New York: W. Freeman and Company Moores and Twiss, 1995.
[5]  Olsen K. (1995). “Continental Riffts: Evolution, Structure, Tectonics”. Amsterdam, Elsevier. Olsen, 1995.
[6]  Pluijim vander A. and Marshak S. (1997). “Earth Structure. An Introduction to Structural Geology.
[7]  Press F. and Siever R. (1998). “Understanting Earth”. New York. W. H., Freeman and Company.
[8]  Davies F. G. (1999). “Dynamics Earth”. Plates, Plumes and Mantle Convection. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Davies, 1999.
[9]  Skinner J. and Porter C. (2000). “The Dynamic Earth. New York. John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
[10]  Papazaxos B. and Papazaxos K. (2008). Introduction to Geophysis”. Editions Ziti, Thessaloniki, Greece (in Greek).
[11]  Bowes D. R. (1989). “The encyclopedia of Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology”, Van Nostrand Reinhold.
[12]  Clare P., Marshall, Rhodes W. and Fairbridge (1999). “Encyclopedia of Geochemistry, Kluer Academic Publishers.
[13]  Marshak S. (2005). “Earth: Portrait of a Plannet”. pp. 41-87.
[14]  Lekkas S., Lozios S and Skourtsos E. (2006). “An intro-duction to Geodynamics”, University of Athens (in Greek)
[15]  Rogers N., Blake S., Burton K. (2008). “An introduction to our dynamic planet”. Cambridge University Press p. 19.
[16]  McClelland L., Simkin T., Summers M., et., al., (eds.) (1989). “Gloval volcanism in 1975 -1985”. Prentice - Hall and American Geophysical Union Mc-Cleelland et., al., 1989.
[17]  Simkin T., and Siebert L. (1994). “Volcanoes of the world, 2nd edition. Geoscience Press in association with the Smithsonian Institution. Global Volcanism Program, Tuscon AZ.
[18]  Simkin T., Unger JD., Tilling RI., et., al., (1994). “This dynamic planet 1x1.5m wall map.” 2nd edition SI, USGS and NRL. 1941-1944.
[19]  Siebert L., and Simkin T., (2002). “Volcanoes of the world: an illustrated catalog of holocene volcanoes and their eruptions”. Smithsonian Institution. Gloval volcanism program digital information series, GVP-3. Also in:
[20]  Venzke E., Wunderman R, Mc Clelland et., al., (eds.): (2002-): Gloval volcanism, 1968 to the present Smithsonian In-stitution. Global Volcanism Program, Digital Information Series GVP-4. Also in:
[21]  Morgan W. (1968). “Rises, trenches, great faults and cry-stal blocks”. J. Geophys., Res., 73. 1969-1982.
[22]  Morgan W. (1971). “Convection plumes in the lower mant-le”. Nature, 230, pp., 42-43.
[23]  Morgan W. (1972). “Plate motions and deep mantle con-vection”. Geol. Soc.,. Am., Man., 132, pp., 7-22.
[24]  Morgan W. (1983): “Hot spot tracks and early rifting of the Atlantic”. Tectonophysics, 94, 123-129.
[25]  Ritter J., Jordan M., Christensen U., et., al., (2001). “A mantle plume below the Eifel volcanic fields”. German, Earth Plan, Sci., Lett., 186, pp.7-14.
[26]  Montelli R., Nolet G., Dahlen F., et., al., (2004) : “Finite – frequency tomography reveals a variety of plumes in the mantle” Science, 303, pp., 338-343.
[27]  Papazaxos K. (2006). in:
[28]  Sih G. (2009). “Crack tip mechanics based on progressive damage of arrow. Hierarchy of singularities and multiscale segments”. Theoretical and Applied, Mechanics, 51, pp. 11-32.
[29]  Grifith A. (1921). “The phenomena of rupture and flow in solids” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London A 221, pp., 163-198.
[30]  Griffith A. (1924). “The theory of rupture”. In: Proc., Ist., Int., Congr., Appl., Mech. Biereno, C.B. Burgers, J.M(eds). Delft: Tech. Boekhandel en Drukkerij. J. Waltman Jr., pp. 54-63.
[31]  Tsoutrelis C. (1985). “Elementary rock mechanics. Part I: Basic theory and experimental method”, Athens, 1985.
[32]  Deere D. and Miller R. (1966): “Engineering classification and index properties for intact rock” Tech. Report No AFWL - TR-65-116, Air Force Weapons Lab., Kirtland Air Base, New Mexico.
[33]  Sakellariou M. (1989). “The effect of the pre - existing cracks in the distribution of the compressive stress. Appli-cation to rock mechanics area”. PhD Thesis, National Tech-nical University of Athens.
[34]  Βombolakis E.G. (1964). “Photoelastic investigation of brittle crack growth within a field of uniaxial compression”. Tectono- physics 1, pp. 343-351.
[35]  Βombolakis E.G (1973). “Study of the brittle fracture pro-cess under uniaxial compression”. Tectonophysics 18, pp. 231-248.
[36]  Hoek E. (1965). “Rock fracture under static conditions”. Natl. Mech., Eng. Res. , Inst., C.S.I.R. Rept. MEG 383.
[37]  Hoek E. (1968). “Brittle failure of rock in: Rock Mechanics in Engineering Practice, Stagg, K.G., Zienkiewicz O.C. (eds). London: Wiley, pp. 19-124.
[38]  Bieniawski Z. T. (1967): “Mechanism of brittle fracture of rock. Part I: Theory of fracture process. Part II: Experimental studies. Part III: Fracture in tension and under long term loa-ding” Int. J. Rock Mech., Sci., 4, pp. 395-430.
[39]  Bieniawski Z. T. (1981). “Rock materials under mixed mode fracture in mixed mode crack propagation”. Proc. of First USA - GREECE Symposium eds. Sih and Theocharis P. Athens, 1980. Sijthoff & Noordhooff. The Netherlands.
[40]  Cotterel B. (1972): “Brittle fracture in compression”. Int., J., Fract., Mech., vol. 8, pp. 195-208.
[41]  Siebe C., Komorowski JC., Navaro C., et., al., (1995). “The 1993 submarine eruption near Socorro Island Mexico”. J. of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 68, pp., 239-271.
[42]  Gaspar JL, Queiroz G., Pachero JM., et., al., (2003). “Ba-saltic lava ballons produced during 1998 - 2001.Serreta Sub-marine Ridge eruption (Azores) in : White DJL et., al., edited: “Explosive Subaqueous Volcanism American Geophysical Union Monograph, 140, p. 205-212.
[43]  Watts A.B., Peirce C., Grevemeyer I., et., al., (2012). “Rapid rates of growth and collaps of Monowai submarine volcano in the Kermadec Arc”. Nature Geoscience , 5, pp., 510-515.
[44]  Schmincke H-U and Sumitu M. (2013). “Fire in the sea. Growth and destruction of submarine volcanoes”. Geology, 41, no 3, p. 381-382.