American Journal of Mechanical Engineering
ISSN (Print): 2328-4102 ISSN (Online): 2328-4110 Website: Editor-in-chief: Kambiz Ebrahimi, Dr. SRINIVASA VENKATESHAPPA CHIKKOL
Open Access
Journal Browser
American Journal of Mechanical Engineering. 2016, 4(7), 297-305
DOI: 10.12691/ajme-4-7-13
Open AccessSpecial Issue

Experimental Analysis of Fixation Curves of Snake Robot Moving in the Pipe

Ivan Virgala1, , Michal Kelemen1, Martin Hagara2, Erik Prada3 and Tomáš Lipták1

1Department of Mechatronics, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Košice, Košice, Slovakia

2Department Applied Mechanics and Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Košice, Košice, Slovakia

3ZTS VVU Košice, a.s., Košice, Slovakia

Pub. Date: December 17, 2016

Cite this paper:
Ivan Virgala, Michal Kelemen, Martin Hagara, Erik Prada and Tomáš Lipták. Experimental Analysis of Fixation Curves of Snake Robot Moving in the Pipe. American Journal of Mechanical Engineering. 2016; 4(7):297-305. doi: 10.12691/ajme-4-7-13


The research field of the snake robots provides a large scale of new information. The snake robots locomotion in pipes represents one of many complicated problems attracting the attention only in recent time period. During this study an experimental environment was designed corresponding to the pipe of U shaped cross section. This article describes a new innovative kinematic structure enabling both rotary and translational movements of links of a snake robot. Combination of these two robot constrains in constructions provides new possibilities of locomotion in a confined space. The main work contribution consists in the analysis of geometric configuration oflinks in static fixation according to their displacements and required actuators electric power. In the experiment withphysical model the method of digital image correlation was used because of the possibilities to take the movement of high dynamic range. Contribution of this experiment furnishes new information and new approach in solving the existing problem.

snake robot fixation curves digital image correlation

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


Figure of 16


[1]  J. Gray, “The mechanism of locomotion in snakes,” in Journal of experimental biology, Vol. 23, No.2, pp. 101-120, 1946. M. Young, The Technical Writer's Handbook. Mill Valley, CA: University Science, 1989.
[2]  F. Barazandeh, B. Bahr, and A. Moradi, “How Self-locking Reduces Actuators Torque in Climbing Snake Robots,” in IEEE International conference on Advanced intelligent mechatronics, pp. 1-6, Switzerland, 2007.
[3]  A. Greenfield, A. Rizzi, and H. Choset, “Dynamic Ambiguities in Frictional Rigid-body Systems with Application to Climbing via Bracing,” in Proceeding of the IEEE International conference on Robotics and Automation, pp. 1959-1964, Spain, 2005.
[4]  J. Everist, and W. Shen, “Mapping Opaque and Confined Environments Using Proprioception,” in IEEE International conference on Robotics and Automation, Japan, 2009.
[5]  A. Kuwada, S. Wakimoto, K. Suzumori, and Y. Adomi, “Automatic Pipe Negotiation Control for Snake-like Robot,” in IEEE International conference on Advanced Intelligent Mechatronics, China, 2008.
[6]  A. Akbarzadeh, Jal. Safehian, Jav. Safehian, H. Kalani, “Generating Snake Robot Concertina Locomotion Using a New Dynamic Curve,” in International Journal of Modeling and Optimization, Vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 134-140, 2011.
[7]  H. Marvi, and D. L. Hu, “Friction enhancement in concertina locomotion of snakes,” in Journal of the Royal Society, pp. 1-14, 2012.
[8]  B. C. Jayne, and J. D. Davis, “Kinematics and performance capacity for the concertina locomotion of a snake (coluber constrictor),” in The Journal of Experimental Biology, pp. 539-556, 1991.
[9]  D. L. Hu, J. Nirody, T. Scott, and M.J. Shelley, “The mechanics of slithering locomotion,” in Proceedings of the National Academy of Science of the United States of America, pp. 1-5, 2009.
[10]  M. I. Ribeiro, “Gaussian Probability Density Functions: Properties and Error Characterization,” in Institute for Systems and Robotics, Portugal 2004.
[11]  T. Kabaca, and M. Aktumen, “Using GeoGebra as an Expressive Modeling Tool: Discovering the Anatomy of the Cycloid´s Parametric Equation,” EMG Turkey, 2010.
[12]  A. Das, “Signal Conditioning – An Introduction to Continuous Wave Communication and Signal Processing”, Springer 2012.
[13]  M. Sutton, and J.-J. Orteu, and H. Schreier, “Image Correlation for Shape, Motion and Deformation Measurements – Basic Concepts, Theory and Applications,” in Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2009, 321 p.
[14]  W. N. Sharpe, “Springer Handbook of Experimental Solid Mechanics,” LLC New York :Springer Science + Business Media, 2008. 1096 p.
[15]  E. Prada, “Periodic and nonperiodic possibility of locomotion of redundant robotic system,” Dissertation thesis, Technical University of Kosice, Kosice 2014.
[16]  I. Virgala, M. Dovica, M. Kelemen, E. Prada, Z. Bobovský “Snake Robot Movement in the Pipe Using Concertina Locomotion,” in A pplied Mechanics and Materials, Vol 611, p.121, (Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland 2014).
[17]  E. Prada, et al. “Kinematic Analysis of Planar Snake-like Robot Mechanism Using of Matrices Formulation.” American Journal of Mechanical Engineering 1.7 (2013): 447-450.
[18]  Jurišica, L., Duchoň, F., Dekan, M., Dynamic Obstatic Avoidance in Mobile Robotics, ATP Journal plus, pp. 69-73.