American Journal of Mechanical Engineering
ISSN (Print): 2328-4102 ISSN (Online): 2328-4110 Website: Editor-in-chief: Kambiz Ebrahimi, Dr. SRINIVASA VENKATESHAPPA CHIKKOL
Open Access
Journal Browser
American Journal of Mechanical Engineering. 2016, 4(5), 191-199
DOI: 10.12691/ajme-4-5-4
Open AccessArticle

Investigation of Neem Seed Oil as an Altanative Metal Cutting Fluid

Nuhu Ali Ademoh1, , Jovita Hussein Didam1 and Danladi King Garba2

1Department of Mechanical Engineering, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria

2Department of Mechanical Engineering, Nigerian Defence Academy, Kaduna, Nigeria

Pub. Date: October 14, 2016

Cite this paper:
Nuhu Ali Ademoh, Jovita Hussein Didam and Danladi King Garba. Investigation of Neem Seed Oil as an Altanative Metal Cutting Fluid. American Journal of Mechanical Engineering. 2016; 4(5):191-199. doi: 10.12691/ajme-4-5-4


Oil extracted from neem seed was investigated for use as alternative cutting fluid in metal machining operation using mild steel at three different values each of cutting speeds, depth of cut and oil ratios. Physicochemical properties that relate to cutting fluid’s performance like cooling effect (temperature rise) and surface roughness were measured and compared to those of conventional cutting oil bought from the market and also with data obtained in dry metal cutting experiment with no lubricant. Results indicated that neem had flash point of 157°C, pour point of +8°C, kinematic viscosity of 8.08cSt at 100°C. Specific gravity at 14/40°C was 0.9304, sulpur content was 0.0293%, pH was 5.6 and free fatty acid (oleic acid) was 5.94%. Cooling effect was found to be comparable at different oil ratios and speeds, but dry machined surfaces produced the least cooling effect with temperature rise of up to 57.33°C at 710rpm at 0.5mm depth of cut. However, neem was found to perform slightly better than the soluble oils in most of the test results. Surface roughness for neem, soluble oil and dry machining were in the range of 0.002 μm and 1.427 μm. The least surface quality was obtained with neem oil at a speed of 250 rpm; depth of cut of 1mm at 50% oil and 50% water mixture. However all surface roughness was within the recommended standard that is the acceptable value for turned and machined surfaces with maximum value set at 25μm.

neem oil cutting fluid speed cooling effect surface roughness sulphur content

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Susan, W. (2005). Going green; Cutting tools engineering magazine, February 2005/ volume 57, number 2.
[2]  Richard, N. C. and Kevin, M. H. (2004). The development and analysis of an environmental friendly machining fluid application system; International Journal of Environmentally Conscious Design and Manufacturing. Vol 12 No 3.
[3]  Singh, A. K., and Gupta, A K. (2006). Metal working fluids from vegetable oils. Journal of Synthetic Lubrication. pages 167-176. Retrieved from http//
[4]  Andres, F. C., Zimmerman, J. B., Heather, R. L., Kim, F. H., and Steven, J. S. (2004). Experimental comparison of vegetable and petroleum base oils in metal working fluids using tapping torque test. Proceedings of Japan-USA symposium on flexible automation. Retrieved as: CR_MIT-Japan_TTT.pdf.
[5]  Ojolo, S. J. Amuda, M. O. H., Ogunmola, O. Y. and Ononiwu, C. U. (2008). Experimental determination of effect of some straight biological oils on cutting force during cylindrical turning; Journal of Matéria (Rio de Janeiro) vol. 13 no.4 Rio de Janeiro.
[6]  Bello, E.I and Makanju, A., (2011). Production, characterization and evaluation of castor oil biodiesel as alternative fuel for diesel engines. Journal of emerging trends in engineering and applied sciences (JETEAS) 2 (3): pp 525-530. Retrieved from:
[7]  Astakhov, V. P. (2006). Effects of the cutting feed, depth of cut, and workpiece (bore) diameter on the tool wear rate.
[8]  Anuar, B. M. (2006). Study of wear on high speed steel (HSS) cutting tool by variable parameters in turning operation; Thesis submitted in accordance with the requirements of the National Technical University College of Malaysia for the Degree of Bachelor of Engineering (Honours) Manufacturing (Process); retrieved from /locate/ijmactool.
[9]  Janne, L. (2008). Visual measurement and modeling of tool wear in rough turning; Master’s thesis submitted to Lappeenranta University of Technology, Faculty of Technology, Management and Information Technology.
[10]  Patrick, A., Olusegun, A., Ganiyu, L., Oluwatoyin, O., and Ganiyu, O. (2010). Analyzing the effect of cutting fluids on the mechanical properties of mild steel in turning operation; American journal of scientific and industrial research. Retrieved from
[11]  Yuzan, Y., Yugao, G., Lei, W. and Enqi, T. (2010). Development of environmentally friendly water-based synthetic metal-cutting fluid. Journal of modern applied science vol 4, No 1; pp53-58.
[12]  Niraj, K. N. (2011); Experimental studies on extraction of valuable fuels from Karanja and neem seed by pyrolysis; a thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for degree of bachelor of technology in chemical engineering. National Institute of Technology, Rourkela; pp 28 and 29.
[13]  Flemming, N., Banana, H. and Jan de, J. (2011). FACT-Arrakis; Castor (Ricinus Comminus)- Potential of Castor for Bio- Fuel Production. FACT Project No: 146/WW/001, (2nd Ed) CV. Retrieved from http:/
[14]  Lawal, S. A., Abolarin, M. S., Ugheoke, B. I and Onche, E.O. (2003); Performance evaluation of cutting fluids developed from fixed oils; Leonado electronic journal of practices and technology; Retrieved from http://www.lejpt.academicdirect.
[15]  Mohammed, J., Atuman, S. J., Ugwu, E., and Aboje, A. A. (2012). Production and Characterization of Biodiesel from Jatropha Oil and Neem Oil. International Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Development. Issue 2, Vol.2 (March-2012).
[16]  Narayana, K. L., Kannaiah, P., and Venkata, K. R., (2008). Machined design. (3rd Ed) New Delhi, India New age international publishes. Pp242-244.
[17]  Yeong, S. K. (1997). Vegetable oil and its derivatives for lubricants. Palm oil development 24. Retrieved from palmoilis.mpod.govmy/publication/pod242.pdf.