American Journal of Medical Case Reports
ISSN (Print): 2374-2151 ISSN (Online): 2374-216X Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/ajmcr Editor-in-chief: Samy, I. McFarlane
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
American Journal of Medical Case Reports. 2021, 9(12), 734-738
DOI: 10.12691/ajmcr-9-12-19
Open AccessCase Report

Atopobium Vaginae Bacteremia with Fetal Loss after Chorionic Villus Sampling: A Case Report

Dieuwertje Horsten1, Lore Noben1, , Laura van Dommelen2 and Carolien A.M. Koks1

1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Máxima Medical Center, Veldhoven, the Netherlands

2Department of Medical Microbiology, Máxima Medical Center, Veldhoven, the Netherlands

Pub. Date: October 18, 2021

Cite this paper:
Dieuwertje Horsten, Lore Noben, Laura van Dommelen and Carolien A.M. Koks. Atopobium Vaginae Bacteremia with Fetal Loss after Chorionic Villus Sampling: A Case Report. American Journal of Medical Case Reports. 2021; 9(12):734-738. doi: 10.12691/ajmcr-9-12-19

Abstract

Chorionic villus sampling (CVS) is a procedure in which biopsies of placental tissue are obtained for prenatal genetic diagnosis. Risk of infection after CVS is low and only sporadic cases of postprocedural sepsis have been reported. Clostridium perfrigens and Escherichia coli are the most commonly described pathogens in cases of sepsis after prenatal invasive diagnostic procedures. However, this report describes a case of sepsis with fetal loss after CVS caused by Atopobium vaginae.

Keywords:
sepsis chorionic villous sampling Atopobium vaginae fetal loss

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

References:

[1]  Carlson LM, Vora NL. Prenatal Diagnosis: Screening and Diagnostic Tools. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am 2017; 44: 245-56.
 
[2]  Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RCOG). Amniocentesis and Chorionic Villus Sampling (Green-top Guideline No. 8) 2010. https://www.rcog.org.uk/en/guidelines-research-services/guidelines/gtg8/ (accessed April 3, 2021).
 
[3]  Salomon LJ, Sotiriadis A, Wulff CB, Odibo A, Akolekar R. Risk of miscarriage following amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling: systematic review of literature and updated meta-analysis. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2019; 54: 442-51.
 
[4]  Beta J, Zhang W, Geris S, Kostiv V, Akolekar R. Procedure-related risk of miscarriage following chorionic villus sampling and amniocentesis. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2019; 54: 452-7.
 
[5]  Silver RK, MacGregor SN, Sholl JS, Elesh RH, Beaird JA, Waldee JK. Initiating a chorionic villus sampling program: Relying on placental location as the primary determinant of the sampling route. J Reprod Med Obstet Gynecol 1990; 35: 964-8.
 
[6]  Jones TM-S-NB, Montero FJ. Chorionic Villus Sampling. StatPearls NCBI Bookshelf 2021. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK563301/ (accessed April 3, 2021).
 
[7]  Warsof SL, Larion S, Abuhamad AZ. Overview of the impact of noninvasive prenatal testing on diagnostic procedures. Prenat Diagn 2015; 35: 972-9.
 
[8]  Alfirevic Z, Navaratnam K, Mujezinovic F. Amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling for prenatal diagnosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2017; 9: CD003252.
 
[9]  Hogge WA, Schonberg SA, Golbus MS. Chorionic villus sampling: Experience of the first 1000 cases. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol., vol. 154, Am J Obstet Gynecol; 1986, p. 1249-52.
 
[10]  Rhoads GG, Jackson LG, Schlesselman SE, de la Cruz FF, Desnick RJ, Golbus MS, et al. The Safety and Efficacy of Chorionic Villus Sampling for Early Prenatal Diagnosis of Cytogenetic Abnormalities. N Engl J Med 1989; 320: 609-17.
 
[11]  Hsu WW, Hsieh CJ, Lee CN, Chen CL, Lin MW, Kang J, et al. Complication rates after chorionic villus sampling and midtrimester amniocentesis: A 7-year national registry study. J Formos Med Assoc 2019; 118: 1107-13.
 
[12]  Farina A. Nonabortal pregnancy complications of chorionic villous sampling. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol 2011; 23: 129-34.
 
[13]  Smidt-Jensen S, Philip J, Lundsteen C, Permin M, Zachary JM, Fowler SE. Randomised comparison of amniocentesis and transabdominal and transcervical chorionic villus sampling. Lancet 1992; 340: 1237-44.
 
[14]  Silverman NS, Silluvan MW, Jungkind DL, Weinblatt V, Beavis K, Wapner RJ. Incidence of bacteremia associated with chorionic villus sampling. Obstet Gynecol 1994: 1021-4.
 
[15]  Paz A, Gonen R, Potasman IL. Candida sepsis following transcervical chorionic villi sampling. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol 2001; 9: 147-8.
 
[16]  Fejgin M, Amiel A, Kaneti H, Ben-Nun I, Beyth Y. Fulminant Sepsis Due to Group B beta-Hemolytic Streptococci Following Transcervical Chorionic Villi Sampling. Clin Infect Dis 1993; 17: 142-3.
 
[17]  Barela AI, Kleinman GE, Golditch IM, Menke DJ, Hogge WA, Golbus MS. Septic shock with renal failure after chorionic villus sampling. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1986; 154: 1100-2.
 
[18]  Muggah HF, D’Alton ME, Hunter AGW. Chorionic Villus Sampling Followed by Genetic Amniocentesis and Septic Shock. Lancet 1987; 329: 867-8.
 
[19]  Oron G, Krissi H, Peled Y. A successful pregnancy following transcervical CVS related GBS sepsis. Prenat Diagn 2010; 30: 380-1.
 
[20]  Singer M, Deutschman CS, Seymour CW, Shankar-Hari M, Annane D, Bauer M, et al. The Third International Consensus Definitions for Sepsis and Septic Shock (Sepsis-3). JAMA 2016; 315: 801-10.
 
[21]  Bodner K, Wierrani F, Bodner-Adler B. Maternal sepsis due to Clostridium perfringens after 2nd-trimester genetic amniocentesis. J Obstet Gynaecol (Lahore) 2011; 31: 339-40.
 
[22]  Elchalal U, Shachar I Ben, Peleg D, Schenker JG. Maternal Mortality following Diagnostic 2nd-Trimester Amniocentesis. Fetal Diagn Ther 2004; 19: 195-8.
 
[23]  Pina C, Pinto F, Do M, Rodrigues C, Santos JL. Escherichia coli Sepsis Following Second-trimester Amniocentesis. Arq Med 2008; 22: 121-2.
 
[24]  Rodriguez Jovita M, Collins MD, Sjödén B, Falsen E. Characterization of a novel Atopobium isolate from the human vagina: description of Atopobium vaginae sp. nov. Int J Syst Bacteriol 1999; 49 Pt 4: 1573-6.
 
[25]  Mariano A, Salzo A, Felice V, Scutellà M. Atopobium vaginae: a literature review, on findings and potential clinical implications. Microbiol Medica 2019; 34.
 
[26]  Ferris MJ, Masztal A, Aldridge KE, Fortenberry JD, Fidel PLJ, Martin DH. Association of Atopobium vaginae, a recently described metronidazole resistant anaerobe, with bacterial vaginosis. BMC Infect Dis 2004; 4: 5.
 
[27]  Burton JP, Devillard E, Cadieux PA, Hammond J-A, Reid G. Detection of Atopobium vaginae in postmenopausal women by cultivation-independent methods warrants further investigation. J Clin Microbiol 2004; 42: 1829-31.
 
[28]  Verhelst R, Verstraelen H, Claeys G, Verschraegen G, Delanghe J, Van Simaey L, et al. Cloning of 16S rRNA genes amplified from normal and disturbed vaginal microflora suggests a strong association between Atopobium vaginae, Gardnerella vaginalis and bacterial vaginosis. BMC Microbiol 2004; 4: 16.
 
[29]  Bradshaw CS, Tabrizi SN, Fairley CK, Morton AN, Rudland E, Garland SM. The association of Atopobium vaginae and Gardnerella vaginalis with bacterial vaginosis and recurrence after oral metronidazole therapy. J Infect Dis 2006; 194: 828-36.
 
[30]  Fredricks DN, Fiedler TL, Marrazzo JM. Molecular identification of bacteria associated with bacterial vaginosis. N Engl J Med 2005; 353: 1899-911.
 
[31]  De Backer E, Verhelst R, Verstraelen H, Claeys G, Verschraegen G, Temmerman M, et al. Antibiotic susceptibility of Atopobium vaginae. BMC Infect Dis 2006; 6: 51.
 
[32]  Wang K-D, Su J-R. Quantification of Atopobium vaginae loads may be a new method for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis. Clin Lab 2014; 60: 1501-8.
 
[33]  Menard JP, Mazouni C, Salem-Cherif I, Fenollar F, Raoult D, Boubli L, et al. High vaginal concentrations of Atopobium vaginae and Gardnerella vaginalis in women undergoing preterm labor. Obstet Gynecol 2010; 115: 134-40.
 
[34]  Leitich H, Bodner-Adler B, Brunbauer M, Kaider A, Egarter C, Husslein P. Bacterial vaginosis as a risk factor for preterm delivery: a meta-analysis. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2003; 189: 139-47.
 
[35]  Donders GG, Van Calsteren K, Bellen G, Reybrouck R, Van den Bosch T, Riphagen I, et al. Predictive value for preterm birth of abnormal vaginal flora, bacterial vaginosis and aerobic vaginitis during the first trimester of pregnancy. BJOG 2009; 116: 1315-24.
 
[36]  Geissdörfer W, Böhmer C, Pelz K, Schoerner C, Frobenius W, Bogdan C. Tuboovarian abscess caused by Atopobium vaginae following transvaginal oocyte recovery. J Clin Microbiol 2003; 41: 2788-90.
 
[37]  Yamagishi Y, Mikamo H, Tanaka K, Watanabe K. A case of uterine endometritis caused by Atopobium vaginae. J Infect Chemother Off J Japan Soc Chemother 2011; 17: 119-21.
 
[38]  Knoester M, Lashley LEELO, Wessels E, Oepkes D, Kuijper EJ. First report of Atopobium vaginae bacteremia with fetal loss after chorionic villus sampling. J Clin Microbiol 2011; 49: 1684-6.
 
[39]  Chan JFW, Lau SKP, Curreem SOT, To KKW, Leung SSM, Cheng VCC, et al. First report of spontaneous intrapartum Atopobium vaginae bacteremia. J Clin Microbiol 2012; 50: 2525-8.
 
[40]  Jacqmin H, DeMunter P, Verhaegen J, Lewi L. Atopobium vaginae Bacteremia Associated with a Subchorionic Hematoma. Clin Microbiol Newsl 2018; 40: 83-5.
 
[41]  Dauby N, Martiny D, Busson L, Cogan A, Meghraoui A, Argudín MA, et al. Atopobium vaginae intrapartum bacteremia: A case report with a literature review. Anaerobe 2019; 59: 212-4.
 
[42]  Taillandier P, Roingeard C, Violette J, Leclère FM, Faivre S. Septic shock caused by Gardnerella vaginalis and Atopobium vaginae. IDCases 2020; 21.
 
[43]  McClure EM, Dudley DJ, Reddy UM, Goldenberg RL. Infectious causes of stillbirth: A clinical perspective. Clin Obstet Gynecol 2010; 53: 635-45.
 
[44]  Giakoumelou S, Wheelhouse N, Cuschieri K, Entrican G, Howie SEM, Horne AW. The role of infection in miscarriage. Hum Reprod Update 2016; 22: 116-33.
 
[45]  Agostinis C, Mangogna A, Bossi F, Ricci G, Kishore U, Bulla R. Uterine immunity and microbiota: A shifting paradigm. Front Immunol 2019; 10: 2387.