American Journal of Medical Case Reports
ISSN (Print): 2374-2151 ISSN (Online): 2374-216X Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/ajmcr Editor-in-chief: Samy, I. McFarlane
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American Journal of Medical Case Reports. 2020, 8(11), 400-404
DOI: 10.12691/ajmcr-8-11-6
Open AccessArticle

Nephrotoxicity Associated with Low-dose Methotrexate and Outpatient Parenteral Microbial Therapy: A Case Report, Review of the Literature and Pathophysiologic Insights

Benjamin Ramalanjaona1, Gil Hevroni1, Samantha Cham2, Cameron Page1, Moro O. Salifu1 and Samy I. McFarlane1,

1Department of Internal Medicine, SUNY-Downstate Health Science University, Brooklyn, New York, United States-11203

2Department of Pharmacy, SUNY-Downstate Health Science University, Brooklyn, New York, United States-11203

Pub. Date: July 23, 2020

Cite this paper:
Benjamin Ramalanjaona, Gil Hevroni, Samantha Cham, Cameron Page, Moro O. Salifu and Samy I. McFarlane. Nephrotoxicity Associated with Low-dose Methotrexate and Outpatient Parenteral Microbial Therapy: A Case Report, Review of the Literature and Pathophysiologic Insights. American Journal of Medical Case Reports. 2020; 8(11):400-404. doi: 10.12691/ajmcr-8-11-6

Abstract

Methotrexate (MTX) toxicity can affect multiple organ systems, manifesting as nephrotoxicity, myelosuppression, hepatotoxicity, mucositis, and gastrointestinal upset. Serious adverse events are rare in patients prescribed low-dose methotrexate. We present a case of an 86-year-old female on a weekly dose of oral MTX 12.5 mg for rheumatoid arthritis presenting with painful gingiva and oral bleeding during outpatient antimicrobial therapy (OPAT) for osteomyelitis with vancomycin and piperacillin-tazobactam. She had acute kidney injury (AKI), elevated serum MTX levels, thrombocytopenia, neutropenia, and a vancomycin level three times therapeutic concentration. MTX toxicity was suspected to have been triggered by vancomycin and piperacillin-tazobactam causing AKI and impaired renal clearance of MTX which itself is nephrotoxic. The patient was managed with leucovorin, alkalinized intravenous fluids, and filgrastim injections over a 2-week period. Her renal function continued to be reduced at 5-week outpatient follow-up, far after other markers of toxicity normalized. This case demonstrates the importance of considering potential drug-drug interactions and the need for robust monitoring for OPAT in select groups.

Keywords:
outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy anti-folate methotrexate nephrotoxicity monitoring surveillance

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