American Journal of Medical Case Reports
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American Journal of Medical Case Reports. 2020, 8(7), 173-177
DOI: 10.12691/ajmcr-8-7-3
Open AccessCase Report

Snorkeling Induced Pulmonary Edema: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

Ruchi Yadav1, Pramod Theetha Kariyanna1, Dommalur Jayarangaiah2, Delroy Thomas3, Vivek Yadav4, Ashkan Tadayoni1, Lyudmila Aurora1, Benjamin Ramalanjaona1 and Isabel M. McFarlane1,

1Division of Cardiovascular Diseases and Department of Internal Medicine, State University of New York, Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY 11203, U.S.A

2Division of Internal Medicine, The American University of St Vincent, B210-5145, Steeles Ave. W. Toronto, ON M9L 1R5, Canada

3Milton Cato Memorial Hospital, Kingstown, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines VC0130

4Department of Internal Medicine, Brookdale University Hospitals and Medical Center, 1 Brookdale Plaza, Brooklyn, New York, NY 11212, USA

Pub. Date: April 14, 2020

Cite this paper:
Ruchi Yadav, Pramod Theetha Kariyanna, Dommalur Jayarangaiah, Delroy Thomas, Vivek Yadav, Ashkan Tadayoni, Lyudmila Aurora, Benjamin Ramalanjaona and Isabel M. McFarlane. Snorkeling Induced Pulmonary Edema: A Case Report and Review of the Literature. American Journal of Medical Case Reports. 2020; 8(7):173-177. doi: 10.12691/ajmcr-8-7-3


Swimming-induced pulmonary edema (SIPE), also called immersion pulmonary edema (IPE), is a medical condition seen in various water-based activities such as scuba diving, swimming, aqua jogging, triathlete competition and snorkeling. It occurs when transcapillary filtration of low protein fluid collects in the lungs, in the absence of water aspiration during an aquatic activity, causing acute dyspnea, cough and/or hemoptysis. The hallmark of this entity is the complete resolution of symptoms within 48 hours. SIPE in snorkeling is an under-reported and understudied subject. The true prevalence of SIPE is unknown with an estimated range from 1.8-60% among combat swimmers trainee and 1.4% in triathletes. Recent developments have been done in elucidating the pathophysiology of SIPE with regards to pulmonary capillary pressure so that the predisposing factors and potential causes can be targeted. SIPE can be a potentially life-threatening condition, which needs to be recognized by the swimmers, divers, supervising physicians in order to diagnose and manage it promptly. We report a rare case of SIPE in snorkeling which presented with acute respiratory symptoms and managed with supportive measures in the hospital.

pulmonary edema immersion pulmonary edema snorkeling swimming athletes

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