American Journal of Medical Case Reports
ISSN (Print): 2374-2151 ISSN (Online): 2374-216X Website: Editor-in-chief: Samy, I. McFarlane
Open Access
Journal Browser
American Journal of Medical Case Reports. 2019, 7(6), 104-108
DOI: 10.12691/ajmcr-7-6-3
Open AccessArticle

Spermogram and Male Fertility: Hospital Experience in Military Avicenna of Marrakech

Zemrani Y1, , Taoufik L1, Ait Zirri K1, Ghoundale O2, El Mezouari E1 and Moutaj R1

1Department of Parasitology and Mycology, Military Hospital Avicenne, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, Marrakech, Morocco

2Department of urology, Military Hospital Avicenne, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, Marrakech, Morocco

Pub. Date: June 08, 2019

Cite this paper:
Zemrani Y, Taoufik L, Ait Zirri K, Ghoundale O, El Mezouari E and Moutaj R. Spermogram and Male Fertility: Hospital Experience in Military Avicenna of Marrakech. American Journal of Medical Case Reports. 2019; 7(6):104-108. doi: 10.12691/ajmcr-7-6-3


Male fertility is known in the last twenty years. Thus, the 1/3 of the infertility of the couple would be male. The spermogram is an essential tool in the strategy of exploration of infertility in humans. The present study will focus exclusively on the place of occupation spermogram in the appearance of the infertile couple. We wrote this retrospective study spread over 10 results of 929 spermograms performed at the Avicenne Military Hospital in Marrakesh, spermogram volume in ml, pH, sperm count / ml, spermatozoa vitality, total mobility, progressive mobility and morphology. Of the 929 sperm samples, 35% on the normal values and 65% on the normal to less than normal values on the basic parameters, from 65% to today. Found in 5.4% of cases, asthenospermia in 46% of cases, oligospermia in 24.5% and revelation teratospermia in 21.9% of cases. After our study, we are confronted like other countries, the problem of male infertility. The spermogram is the essential exam for the exploration of the male side in an infertile couple to make diagnoses, but also the doctor treating additional examinations.

spermogram - male fertility - couple sterility

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Meacham r b, Joyce g f, Wise m, et al . Male Infertility. J Urol 2007; 177: 2058-66.
[2]  Trevor G. Cooper, Elizabeth Noonan, Sigrid von Eckardstein, Jacques Auger, H.W. Gordon Baker, Hermann M. Behre, Trine B. Haugen, Thinus Kruger, Christina Wang, Michael T. Mbizvo, and Kirsten M. Vogelsong. World Health Organization reference values for human semen characteristics. Human Reproduction Update, Vol.00, No.0 pp. 1-15, 2009.
[3]  Inhorn MC, Patrizio P. Infertility around the globe: new thinking on gender, reproductive technologies and global movements in the 21st century. Hum Reprod Update 2015;21:411-26.
[4]  Jørgensen N, Joensen UN, Jensen TK, Jensen MB, Almstrup K, Olesen IA, et al. Human semen quality in the new millennium: a prospective cross-sectional population-based study of 4867 men. BMJ Open 2012;2(4).
[5]  Olesen IA, Andersson A-M, Aksglaede L, Skakkebaek NE, Rajpert-de Meyts E, Joergensen N, et al. Clinical, genetic, biochemical, and testicular biopsy findings among 1,213 men evaluated for infertility. Fertil Steril 2017; 107: 7482.e7.
[6]  Salas -Huetos A, Bulló M, Salas-Salvadó J. Dietary patterns, foods and nutrients in male fertility parameters and fecundability: a systematic review of observational studies. Hum Reprod Update 2017; 23: 37189.
[7]  Sophie Lamothea, Véronique Kerlanc, Sophie Christin-Maitrea, Qualité du sperme et fertilité : rôle de l’environnement et de la santé. Annales d’Endocrinologie 79 (2018) S1-S9.
[8]  Pellestor F, Girardet A, Andrea B. Effect of long abstinence periods on human sperm quality. Int J Fertil Menopausal study 1994; 39: 278-82,
[9]  Jurema MW, Vieira AD, Bankowski B, Petrella C, Zhao Y, Wallach E, Zacur H. Effect of ejaculatory abstinence period on the pregnancy rate after intrauterine insemination Fertil Steril 2005; 84: 678-81.
[10]  Vasan, S. S. Interpretation of Semen Analysis. Male Infertility (2016), 55-83.
[11]  Munuce MJ, Bregni C, Carizza C, Mendeluk G. Semen culture, leukocytospermia and the presence of sperm antibodies in seminal hyperviscosity. Arch Androl. 1999; 42: 21-8.
[12]  Esfandiari N, Burjaq H, Gotlieb L, Casper RF. Seminal hyperviscosity is associated with poor outcome of in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer: a prospective study. Fertil Steril. 2008; 90: 1739-43.
[13]  A. Devaux, P. Demailly, R. Cabry, F. Brasseur, E. Lourdel, C. Clayes, M.-F. Ollieric, H. Copin, P. Merviel. Valeurs limites du spermogramme : comment les interpreter ? Quelle conduite adopter ? Gynécologie Obstétrique & Fertilité 38 (2010) 16-17.
[14]  N.Belhadrie-Mansouri; N. Celton; A. Devaux; H. Copin; P. Merviel, M.Benkhalifa. Lecture du spermogramme, du spermocytogramme et techniques d'analyses du génome du spermatozoïde. Infertilité; Prise en Charge Globale et Thérapeutique 2016, Pages 65-70.
[15]  G. Robin, F. Marcelli, V. Mitchell, C. Marchetti, L. Lemaitre, D. Dewailly, M. Leroy-Billiard, J.-M. Rigot. Pourquoi et comment réaliser un bilan d’hypospermie ? Gynécologie Obstétrique & FertilitéVolume 36, Issue 10, October 2008, Pages 1035-1042.
[16]  Yue-juan ZHANG ;Jian ZHONG ;Wei-jie ZHU. Evaluation on sperm parameters of ejaculates with hyperspermia. Journal of Reproduction and Contraception. Volume 26, Issue 3, September 2015, Pages 131-134.
[17]  Geoffroy Robin ; Florence Boitrelle ; Xavier Leroy ; Marie-Claire Peers ;François Marcelli ; Jean-MarcRigot ; Valérie Mitchell ; Bilan d’une azoospermie et évaluation histologique de la spermatogenèse. Annales de PathologieVolume 30, Issue 3, June 2010, Pages 182-195.
[18]  E. Amar. Du bilan standard aux examens spécialisés chez l’homme infertile. Gynécologie Obstétrique & Fertilité 38 (2010) 8-9.
[19]  Beauchamp PJ, Galle PC, Blasco L. Human sperm velocity and postinsemination cervical mucus test in the evaluation of the infertile couple. Arch Androl 1984; 13: 107-12.
[20]  Lee R, Goldstein M, Ullery BW, Ehrlich J, Soares M, Razzano RA, et al. Value of serum antisperm antibodies in diagnosing obstructive azoospermia. J Urol 2009;181: 264-9.
[21]  Folgerø T, Bertheussen K, Lindal S, Torbergsen T, Oian P. Mitochondrial disease and reduced sperm motility. Hum Reprod 1993; 8: 1863-8.
[22]  Hauser R, Sokol R. Science linking environmental contaminant exposures with fertility and reproductive health impacts in the adult male. Fertil Steril 2008; 89: e59-65.
[23]  Wilton LJ, Temple-Smith PD, Baker HW, de Kretser DM. Human male infertility caused by degeneration and death of sperm in the epididymis. Fertil Steril 1988; 49: 1052-8.
[24]  A. Dumont A. -L. Barbotin V. Lefebvre-Khalil V. Mitchell J.-M. Rigot F. Boitrelle G. Robin. La necrozoospermie: du diagnostic étiologique à la prise en charge thérapeutique. Gynécologie Obstétrique Fertilité & Sénologie; Volume 45, Issue 4, April 2017, Pages 238-248.
[25]  Gatimel N, Moreau J, Parinaud J, et al. Sperm morphology: assessment, pathophysiology, clinical relevance, and state of the art in 2017. Andrology. 2017; 5(5): 845-62.
[26]  Bartoov B, Eltes F, Pansky M, Lederman H, Caspi E, Soffer Y. Estimating fertility potential via semen analysis data. Hum Reprod 1993; 8: 65-70.
[27]  Van der merwe FH, kruger TF, Oehninger SC, Lombard CJ. The use of semen parameters to identify the subfertile male in the general population. Gynecol Obstet Invest 2005; 59: 86-91.
[28]  Van Waart J, Krugert F, Lombard CJ, Ombelet W. Predictive value of normal sperm morphology in intrauterine insemination (IUI): a structured literature review. Hum Reprod Update 2001; 7: 495-500.
[29]  Lee RK, Hou JW, Ho HY, et al. Sperm morphology analysis using strict criteria as a prognostic factor in intrauterine insemination. Int J Androl 2002; 25: 277-80.
[30]  Kruger TF, Acosta AA, Simmons KF, Swanson JR, Matta JF, Oehninger S. Predictive value of sperm morphology in in vitro fertilization. Fertil Steril 1988; 49: 112-7.
[31]  Coetzee K, Kruge TF, Lombard CJ. Predictive value of normal sperm morphology: a structured literature review. Hum Reprod 1998; 4: 73-82.
[32]  Lundin K, Soderlund B, Hamberger L. The relationship between sperm morphology and rates of fertilization, pregnancy and spontaneous abortion in an in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection programme. Hum Reprod 1997; 12: 2676-81.
[33]  Keegan B, Barton R, Sanchez S, Berkeley XA, Krey SL, Grifo CJ. Isolated teratozoospermia does not affect in vitro fertilization outcome and is not an indication for intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Fertil Steril 2007; 88: 1583-8.
[34]  French BD, Sabanegh SE, Goldfarb J, Desai N. Does severe teratozoopermia affect blastocyst formation, live birth rate, and other clinical outcome parameters in ICSI cycles? Fertil Steril 2009
[35]  Hotaling JM, Smith JF, Rosen M, et al. The relationship between isolated teratozoospermia and clinical pregnancy after in vitro fertilization with or without intracytoplasmic sperm injection: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Fertility and sterility. 2011; 95(3): 1141-5.
[36]  Niels E, Skakkebæk, Jørgensen N, Katharina M. Is human fecundity declining?.international journal of andrology 2006;29:2-11.
[37]  Priskorn L, Holmboe SA, Jørgensen N, Andersson AM, Almstrup K. Adverse trends in male reproductive health and decreasing fertility rates. Anim. Reprod 2012; 4: 760-71.
[38]  Jørgensen N, Vierula M, Jacobsen R, Pukkala E, Perheentupa A, Virtanen HE, Skakkebæk NE, Toppari J. Recent adverse trends in semen quality and testis cancer incidence among Finnish men. Int J Androl 2011; 34: 37-48.
[39]  Iwamoto T, Nozawa S, Mieno MN, Yamakawa K, Baba K, Yoshiike M, Namiki M, Koh E, Kanaya J, Okuyama A, Matsumiya K, Tsujimura A, Kanetake H, Eguchi J, Skakkebaek NE, Vierula M, Toppari J, Jørgensen N. Semen quality of 1559 young men from four cities in Japan: a cross-sectional population-based study. BMJ Open 2013; 3: 29.
[40]  Tawadrous GA et al. Effect of smoking status on seminal parameters and apoptotic markers in infertile men. J Urol 2011; 186: 1986-90.
[41]  Ramlau-Hansen CH, Thulstrup AM, Storgaard L, Toft G, Olsen J, Bonde JP. Is prenatal exposure to tobacco smoking a cause of poor semen quality? A follow-up study. Am J Epidemiol 2007; 15: 1372-1379.
[42]  Sharpe RM. Environmental/lifestyle effects on spermatogenesis. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2010; 365: 1697-712.
[43]  Sharma R, Harlev A, Agarwal A, Esteves SC. Cigarette Smoking and Semen Quality: A New Meta-analysis Examining the Effect of the 2010 World Health Organization Laboratory Methods for the Examination of Human Semen. Eur Urol. 2016 Oct; 70(4): 635-645.